Skin is the most difficult barrier for a microbe to penetrate. Some pathogens induce mucosal epithelial cells to engulf the bacterium. Some pathogens exploit antigen-sampling processes, including transcytosis by M cells and phagocytosis.
■ How do Shigella species enter intestinal epithelial cells?
■ Why does Mycobacterium tuberculosis facilitate its own uptake by macrophages?
■ Why would some pathogens behave differently in a non-human host?
Bacteria move from cell to cell propelled by actin filaments.
(c) Pathogen (bacteria) released from macrophages enters host cells by endocytosis.
Figure 19.6 Antigen-Sampling Processes Provide a Mechanism for Invasion Shigella species use M cells to traverse the epithelial barrier. Once on the other side, macrophages ingest them, but the bacteria are able to escape and then infect other cells.
Was this article helpful?
Nutrition is a matter that people spend their careers learning about and requires volumes of books to explain. My objective is to instruct you how to consume a healthy nutritional diet that aids your body in burning off fat instead of storing it. You do not require overwhelming science to get this.