First-line defenses are the initial obstacles that microbes must overcome to invade the tissues. Within the body are sensor systems such as toll-like receptors and the complement system that recognize when the barriers have been breached. Phagocytic cells engulf foreign material; they can communicate with other cells via cytokines. Inflammation is a coordinated response to invasion or tissue damage.
■ How do cytokines function?
■ Describe the dual roles played by some types of phagocytes.
■ What types of molecules that are unique to microbes might toll-like receptors recognize?
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