The genomic structure and shapes of animal viruses are similar to bacteriophages, except the complex shape is not represented. Many animal viruses have an envelope derived from the host cell membrane surrounding their capsid. Animal viruses are classified based on whether they contain DNA or RNA, whether they are enveloped, and their shape. Viruses that cause disease are often grouped by their routes of transmission.
■ Give two differences in the structure of some animal viruses and bacteriophages.
■ List four ways in which viruses can be transmitted from one organism to another.
■ Why do animal viruses have envelopes and phages do not?
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