Frontal sinus Nasal chamber Nasolacrimal duct Middle ear Mastoid air cell

Eustachian tube Maxillary sinus

Upper Respiratory — System

Lower Respiratory — System

Frontal sinus

Nasolacrimal duct opening

Columnar epithelium

Secretory (goblet) cell

Columnar epithelium

Secretory (goblet) cell

Cilia Flow of mucus

Sphenoid sinus


Eustachian tube opening

Opening of maxillary sinus


(shaded area)






Bronchiolitis Legionnaires' disease

Bronchitis Pleurisy

Coccidioidomycosis Pneumonia Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome RSV infections

Histoplasmosis Tuberculosis

Influenza Whooping cough

564 Chapter 23 Respiratory System Infections free of microorganisms. Viral infection, tobacco smoke, alcohol, and narcotics, however, impair ciliary movement and increase the chance of infection.

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