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1. Isolate DNA

2. Use a restriction enzyme to generate fragments of DNA

only can bacteria be engineered to make increased amounts of commercially valuable microbial products, such as various enzymes, they can also be engineered to synthesize proteins normally produced only by animal cells. ■ high-copy-number plasmid, p. 210

Pharmaceutical Proteins A variety of proteins can be used to treat people suffering from certain diseases (see table 9.2). In the past, these proteins were extracted from live animal or cadaver tissues, which made them expensive and limited the supply. Human insulin, used in treating diabetics, was one of the first important pharmaceutical proteins to be produced through genetic engineering. The original commercial product, extracted from pancreatic glands of cattle and pigs, caused allergic reactions in approximately 1 in 20 patients. Once the gene for human insulin was cloned into bacteria, microorganisms became the major source of insulin sold in the United States. A 2,000-liter culture of E. coli that contains the insulin gene yields 100 grams of purified insulin, an amount that would require 1,600 pounds of pancreatic glands. The microbial production of insulin is safer and more economical than extracting it from animal tissues.

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