1. African sleeping sickness is present over much of tropical Africa; of the protozoan blood and lymphatic diseases, however, malaria is the most widespread.
Malaria (Table 28.8)
1. Malaria is caused by four species of Plasmodium and is transmitted from person to person by the bite of certain species of Anopheles mosquitoes, its biological vectors.
2. Now confined mainly to impoverished warm regions of the world, malaria survives despite massive eradication programs; it is the most widespread of all serious infectious diseases.
3. The life cycle is complex; different forms of the organism invade different body cells and have different susceptibility to antimalarial medication. (Figure 28.11)
4. Replication of the organism inside red blood cells results in the almost simultaneous rupture of the infected cells and release of the progeny protozoa to infect new red cells.
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