Info

Creating gene fusions

Studying the conditions that affect gene activity

Genetically Engineered Eukaryotes

Application

Transgenic plants Pest-resistant plants Herbicide-resistant plants

Plants with improved nutritional value Plants that function as edible vaccines

Insect-resistant corn, cotton, and potatoes

Biodegradable herbicide can be used to kill weeds without killing engineered plants (soybean, cotton, corn)

Rice that produces vitamin A and iron

Enables researchers to study foods as vehicles for edible vaccines

cell. To overcome this problem, each fragment being cloned must be inserted into a plasmid or other independently replicating DNA molecule to form a recombinant molecule (figure 9.2). The DNA molecule used as a carrier of the cloned DNA is called a cloning vector, or, more simply, a vector. The DNA

that has been incorporated into the vector is called an insert. ■ origin of replication, p. 172

Genetically engineered bacteria have a variety of uses, including protein production, DNA production, and research. A great deal of the information described in this textbook has

222 Chapter 9 Biotechnology and Recombinant DNA

Bacterial chromosome

Bacterial chromosome

DNA fragment (no origin of replication)

DNA fragment (no origin of replication)

DNA molecules without an origin of replication cannot replicate in a cell.

DNA molecules without an origin of replication cannot replicate in a cell.

Only one daughter cell will have a copy of the DNA fragment

Figure 9.1 DNA Must Replicate in a Cell in Order to be Maintained in a Population of Cells

Only one daughter cell will have a copy of the DNA fragment

Figure 9.1 DNA Must Replicate in a Cell in Order to be Maintained in a Population of Cells

Insert (DNA fragment) Vector

(with an origin of replication)

A DNA fragment inserted into a vector can be replicated and passed on to daughter cells.

A DNA fragment inserted into a vector can be replicated and passed on to daughter cells.

All daughter cells will have a copy of the recombinant molecule.

All daughter cells will have a copy of the recombinant molecule.

been revealed through research involving genetically engineered bacteria.

Protein Production

Bacteria can be engineered to produce commercially important proteins more efficiently. A gene coding for a valuable protein can be inserted into a high-copy-number plasmid and then introduced into the same or a different organism. The organism will then make increased amounts of the protein, because each gene copy can be transcribed and translated (figure 9.3). Not

You Are What You Eat

You Are What You Eat

Nutrition is a matter that people spend their careers learning about and requires volumes of books to explain. My objective is to instruct you how to consume a healthy nutritional diet that aids your body in burning off fat instead of storing it. You do not require overwhelming science to get this.

Get My Free Ebook


Post a comment