Base analog Example: 5-bromouracil
Incorporates in place of normal nucleotide in DNA
Intercalating agents Example: ethidium bromide
Inserts between base pairs
Addition or subtraction of base pairs
Chemical modification of bases Examples: nitrous acid
Converts amino group to keto group in adenine and cytosine
Adds alkyl groups (CH3 and others) to nitrogenous bases such as guanine
Random insertion into any gene
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