Info

Base analog Example: 5-bromouracil

Incorporates in place of normal nucleotide in DNA

Base substitution

Intercalating agents Example: ethidium bromide

Inserts between base pairs

Addition or subtraction of base pairs

Chemical modification of bases Examples: nitrous acid

Converts amino group to keto group in adenine and cytosine

Base substitution

alkylating agents

Adds alkyl groups (CH3 and others) to nitrogenous bases such as guanine

Base substitution

Transposons

Random insertion into any gene

Knockout mutations

Radiation

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