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100 nm

Figure 14.5 Electron Micrograph of Calicivirus The number of virions can be counted, and the number of empty capsids also can be readily determined.The latter are not infectious.

100 nm

Figure 14.5 Electron Micrograph of Calicivirus The number of virions can be counted, and the number of empty capsids also can be readily determined.The latter are not infectious.

Red blood cells

Hemagglutination

Red blood cells

Virus

Hemagglutination

Hemagglutination

No hemagglutination

Figure 14.6 Hemagglutination (a) Diagram showing virions combining with red blood cells resulting in hemagglutination. (b) Assay of viral titer by hemagglutination. Each horizontal series of cups in horizontal lanes (A-H) represents serial twofold dilutions of different preparations of influenza virus mixed with a suspension of red blood cells.

Hemagglutination

No hemagglutination

Figure 14.6 Hemagglutination (a) Diagram showing virions combining with red blood cells resulting in hemagglutination. (b) Assay of viral titer by hemagglutination. Each horizontal series of cups in horizontal lanes (A-H) represents serial twofold dilutions of different preparations of influenza virus mixed with a suspension of red blood cells.

348 Chapter 14 Viruses, Prions, and Viroids: Infectious Agents of Animals and Plants

Hemagglutination can be measured by mixing serial dilutions of the viral suspension with a standard amount of red blood cells. The highest dilution showing maximum agglutination is the titer of the virus. One group of animal viruses that can agglutinate red blood cells is the myxoviruses, of which the influenza virus is a member. ■ hemagglutination, p. 432

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