Extreme halophiles are found in salt lakes, soda lakes, and brines used for curing fish; they can grow well in saturated salt solutions. They include the genera Halobacterium, Halorubrum, Natronobacterium, and Natronococcus. (Figure 11.31)

Some extreme halophiles can obtain limited amounts of energy from light.

Extreme Thermophiles

1. Methanothermus species are hyperthermophiles that generate methane.

2. Sulfur- and sulfate-reducing hyperthermophiles are obligate anaerobes that use sulfur (or, in one case, sulfate) as a terminal electron acceptor. They include the genera Thermococcus, Archaeoglobus, Thermoproteus, Pyrodictium, and Pyrolobus.

3. Sulfur-oxidizing hyperthermophiles oxidize sulfur compounds, using O2 as a terminal electron acceptor, to generate sulfuric acid. They are exemplified by Sulfolobus species, which are obligate aerobes. (Figure 11.32)

Thermophilic Extreme Acidophiles

1. Thermoplasma and Picrophilus species have an optimum pH of 2 or below.

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