Anthrax; edema factor, lethal factor
Inhaled form—septic shock; cutaneous form—skin lesions
Edema factor modifies a regulatory protein in cells, causing those cells to overproduce fluids. Lethal factor inactivates proteins involved in cell signaling functions.
Pertussis (whooping cough); pertussis toxin
Sudden bouts of violent coughing
Modifies a regulatory protein in respiratory cells, causing those cells to overproduce respiratory secretions and mucus. Other factors also contribute to the symptoms.
Diphtheria; diphtheria toxin
Pseudomembrane in the throat; heart, kidney damage.
Inhibits protein synthesis by inactivating an elongation factor of eukaryotic cells. Kills local cells (in the throat) but can also be carried in the bloodstream to various organs.
E. coli O157:H7
Bloody diarrhea, hemolytic uremic syndrome; shiga toxin
Diarrhea that may be bloody; kidney damage
Inactivates the 60S subunit of eukaryotic ribosomes, halting protein synthesis.
Dysentery, hemolytic uremic syndrome; shiga toxin
Diarrhea that contains blood, pus, and mucus; kidney damage
Inactivates the 60S subunit of eukaryotic ribosomes, halting protein synthesis
MEMBRANE-DAMAGING TOXINS (cytotoxins)—
-Disrupts plasma membranes.
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