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Bacillus anthracis

Anthrax; edema factor, lethal factor

Inhaled form—septic shock; cutaneous form—skin lesions

Edema factor modifies a regulatory protein in cells, causing those cells to overproduce fluids. Lethal factor inactivates proteins involved in cell signaling functions.

p. 503

Bordetella pertussis

Pertussis (whooping cough); pertussis toxin

Sudden bouts of violent coughing

Modifies a regulatory protein in respiratory cells, causing those cells to overproduce respiratory secretions and mucus. Other factors also contribute to the symptoms.

p. 579

Corynebacterium diphtheriae

Diphtheria; diphtheria toxin

Pseudomembrane in the throat; heart, kidney damage.

Inhibits protein synthesis by inactivating an elongation factor of eukaryotic cells. Kills local cells (in the throat) but can also be carried in the bloodstream to various organs.

p. 568

E. coli O157:H7

Bloody diarrhea, hemolytic uremic syndrome; shiga toxin

Diarrhea that may be bloody; kidney damage

Inactivates the 60S subunit of eukaryotic ribosomes, halting protein synthesis.

p. 615

Shigella dysenteriae

Dysentery, hemolytic uremic syndrome; shiga toxin

Diarrhea that contains blood, pus, and mucus; kidney damage

Inactivates the 60S subunit of eukaryotic ribosomes, halting protein synthesis

p. 613

MEMBRANE-DAMAGING TOXINS (cytotoxins)—

-Disrupts plasma membranes.

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