Ultraviolet (UV)

Intrastrand thymine dimer formation

Base substitution

X rays

Single- and double-strand breaks in DNA

Deletion of bases Knockout mutations

the double helix, and the DNA is damaged. DNA cannot be replicated nor can genes be transcribed beyond this site of damage. As a result, the cells could die. How then can UV light be mutagenic? The major mutagenic action of UV light, results from the cell's attempt to repair the damage by a mechanism termed SOS repair (see the next section). ■ gene transcription, p. 173

X Rays

X rays cause several types of damage: single- and double-strand breaks in DNA, and alterations to the bases. Double-strand breaks often result in deletions that are lethal.

Table 8.1 summarizes information on the common mutagens.

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