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Figure 14.22 Proposed Mechanism by Which Prions Replicate The normal and prion proteins differ in their tertiary structures.

Step 2 The normal protein is converted to the abnormal prion protein. >

Steps 3 and 4 The abnormal prion proteins continue to interact with normal proteins until they convert all of the normal proteins to abnormal proteins.

Steps 3 and 4 The abnormal prion proteins continue to interact with normal proteins until they convert all of the normal proteins to abnormal proteins.

Figure 14.22 Proposed Mechanism by Which Prions Replicate The normal and prion proteins differ in their tertiary structures.

All viroids that have been identified infect plants, where they cause serious diseases. These diseases include potato spindle tuber, chrysanthemum stunt, citrus exocortis, cucumber pale fruit, hopstunt, and cadang-cadang.

A great deal is known about the structure of viroid RNA, but many questions remain. How do viroids replicate? How do they cause disease? How did they originate? Do they have counterparts in animals, or are they restricted to plants? The answers to these questions will provide insights into new and fascinating features of another unusual member of the microbial world.

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