Bifidobacterium species are irregular Gram-positive rod-shaped organisms that reside primarily in the intestinal tract of animals, including humans, particularly breast-fed infants. Campylobacter and Helicobacter species are microaerophilic, curved Gram-negative rods.

Haemophilus species are Gram-negative coccobacilli that require compounds found in blood for growth. Neisseria species are nutritionally fastidious, obligate aerobes that grow in the oral cavity and genital tract. Mycoplasma species lack a cell wall; they often have sterols in their membrane that provide strength and rigidity (Figure 11.28) Treponema and Borrelia species are spirochetes that typically inhabit mucous membranes and body fluids of humans and other animals.

Obligate Intracellular Parasites

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