Figure 17.8 Fluorescent Antibody Tests (a) Direct testing. (b) Indirect testing. (c) Treponema pallidum spirochetes stained with fluorescein-tagged antibodies in an indirect test.

immunological tests. The anti-HGG attaches to any antibodies remaining on the slide from the unknown serum. Then the slide is examined in the fluorescence microscope. Again, the organisms appear as yellow-green (figure 17.8b). A positive indirect fluorescent antibody test for Treponema pallidum is shown in figure 17.8c.

434 Chapter 17 Applications of Immune Responses

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