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Nucleoside analogs

Acyclovir, ganciclovir, ribavirin, zidovudine (AZT), didanosine (ddl), lamivudine (3TC)

Primarily used to treat infections caused by herpesviruses and HIV; they do not cure latent infections.The drugs are converted within eukaryotic cells to a nucleotide analog; virally encoded enzymes are prone to incorporate these, resulting in premature termination of synthesis or improper base-pairing of the viral nucleic acid. Acyclovir is used to treat active herpes simplex virus (HSV) and varicella-zoster virus (VZV) infections. Ganciclovir is used to treat cytomegalovirus infections in immunocompromised patients. Ribavirin is used to treat respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infections in newborns. Combinations of nucleoside analogs such as zidovudine (AZT), didanosine (ddl), and lamivudine (3TC) are used to treat HIV infections.

Non-nucleoside polymerase inhibitors Foscarnet

Primarily used to treat infections caused by herpesviruses.They inhibit the activity of viral polymerases by binding to a site other than the nucleotide-binding site. Foscarnet is used to treat ganciclovir-resistant cytomegalovirus (CMV) and acyclovir-resistant herpes simplex virus (HSV).

Non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors

Used to treat HIV infections.They inhibit the activity of reverse transcriptase by binding to a site other than the nucleotide-binding site and are often used in combination with nucleoside analogs.

Nevirapine, delavirdine, efavirenz

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