Figure 32.6 Bread Production

Ingredients of bread include yeast, milk or water, oil, flour, salt, and sugar.

The dough is thoroughly mixed and kneaded.

The dough is put in a bowl and allowed to rise. During this time, the yeast produces ethanol and CO2. The dough rises to approximately double the original volume. The gas generated creates air pockets in the dough, producing the texture we see in the finished bread.

Following the period of rising, the dough is shaped into loaves and then goes through a second rising. The bread dough is then baked.

Note the holes caused by the production of CO2 and the evaporation of ethanol in the finished loaf of bread.

Figure 32.6 Bread Production

32.5 Foodborne Illness

Table 32.3 Foods Produced Using Molds



Soy Sauce

Koji is produced by inoculating soybeans and cracked wheat with a starter culture of Aspergillus oryzae or A. sojae; the mixture is then added to a brine and incubated for many months.


Soybeans are fermented by lactic acid bacteria and then inoculated with a species of the mold Rhizopus; Indonesia.


Rice, soybeans, or barley are inoculated with Aspergillus oryzae; Asia.


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