Dna

—C —C —A —T —G —C —C —A —A —T —T —T

mRNA

G— G— U— A— C— G— G— U— U— A— A— A—

Amino acid

- Chain termination

Figure 8.2 Frameshift Mutation As a Result of Base Addition The addition of a nucleotide to the DNA results in a frameshift when the DNA is transcribed into mRNA and a new triplet code word is translated as a new amino acid.The deletion of a nucleotide would have essentially the same effect.The protein chain terminates when a stop codon appears in the DNA, a nonsense mutation.

The classic studies of transposition were carried out by Dr. Barbara McClintock (see A Glimpse of History). She observed variation in the colors of kernels of corn as a result of transposons moving into and out of genes concerned with pigment synthesis (figure 8.3).

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