A more detailed discussion of the replication of hepatitis B virus is presented in chapter 24. ■ hepatitis B replication, p. 622

Slow Infections

In slow infections, the infectious agent gradually increases in amount over a very long time during which no significant symptoms are apparent. Eventually, a slowly progressive lethal disease ensues (see figure 14.12d). AIDS has features of slow virus infections. ■ AIDS, p. 655

Two groups of unusual agents that cause slow infections have been identified. One genus is the Lentivirus (lenti means "slow"), which is in the family Retroviridae (retroviruses; retro means backwards). Members of this family cause tumors in animals. The second is the protein infectious agents called prions. Both groups cause diseases that have long preclinical phases and result in progressive, invariably fatal diseases. In both groups, the infectious agent can be recovered from infected animals during both the preclinical years when no symptoms are evident and the time that clinical symptoms are present. ■ prions, p. 11

Complex Infections

Some viral infections cannot be neatly pigeonholed into a single type of infection; they have features associated with more than one type. We call such infections complex. One example is the infection caused by the human immunodefiency virus (HIV),

Table 14.7 Examples of Latent Infections


Primary Disease

Recurrent Disease

Cells Involved in Latent State

Herpes Simplex Virus

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