Causative Organism Of Cesnavan Disease

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Botulism is caused by the strictly anaerobic, Gram-positive, spore-forming, rod-shaped bacterium, Clostridium botulinum. Its endospores, formed near the ends of the cells (figure 26.12), generally resist boiling for hours, but they are killed by auto-claving. Different strains of C. botulinum vary markedly in their biochemical activity, but all produce toxins that act in a similar way to cause paralysis. Seven antigenically different toxins, designated A, B, C1, D, E, F, and G, are synthesized by different strains of C. botulinum. Types A, B, E, and F are responsible for most human cases, while types C and D affect only birds and other animals. In strains C and D, toxin production results from lysogenic conversion. The toxins are released in an inac-

10 mm

Figure 26.12 Clostridium botulinum Notice the spores that form near the ends of the bacteria.These spores are not reliably killed by the temperature of boiling water.

10 mm

Figure 26.12 Clostridium botulinum Notice the spores that form near the ends of the bacteria.These spores are not reliably killed by the temperature of boiling water.

26.2 Bacterial Nervous System Infections 673

tive form upon lysis of the bacterial cells, and they are activated by proteolytic enzymes.■ lysogenic conversion, p. 331

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5 Common Skin Problems Answered

5 Common Skin Problems Answered

Our skin may just feel like a mere shield that protects us from the world outside. But, the fact is, its more than just the mask that keeps your insides in. It is a very unique and remarkable complex organ that reflects our general health.

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