■ They carry chemical energy in their bonds. ■ adenosine triphosphate, p. 24

■ They are part of certain enzymes. ■ CoA, p. 139

■ They serve as specific signaling molecules. ■ cyclic AMR p. 185

The nucleotides of DNA are composed of three units: a nitrogen-containing ring compound, called a base; which is covalently bonded to a 5-carbon sugar molecule, deoxyribose;

O— which in turn is bonded to a phosphate molecule (figure 2.22). The four different nitrogen-containing bases can be divided into two groups according to their ring structures: two purines, adenine and guanine, which

Figure 2.21 Structures of Three Important Polysaccharides The three molecules shown consist of the same subunit, D-glucose, yet they are distinctly different molecules because of differences in linkage that join the molecules (a and b; 1,4 or 1,6), the degree of branching, and the bonds involved in branching (not shown).Weak hydrogen bonds are also involved.

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