A3

Prefix or Suffix

Meaning

Example

extra-

outside of

extracellular

flav-

yellow

flavoprotein (a protein containing a yellow enzyme)

-gen

produce, originate

antigen (a substance that induces a production of antibodies)

glyc-

sweet

glycemia (the presence of sugar in the blood)

hetero-

other

heterotroph (organism that obtains carbon from organic compo

homo-

common, same

homologous (similar in structure or origin)

hydr-

water

dehydrate

hyper-

excessive, above

hypersensitive

hypo-

under

hypotonic (having low osmotic pressure)

iso-

same, equal

isotonic (having the same osmotic pressure)

-itis

inflammation

appendicitis, meningitis

leuko-

white

leukocyte (white blood cell)

ly-, -lys, -lyt-

loosen; dissolve

bacteriolysis (dissolution of bacteria)

meso-

middle

mesophilic (preferring moderate temperatures)

meta-

changed

metachromatic (staining differently with the same dye)

micro-

small; one-millionth part

microscopic

milli-

one-thousandth part

millimeter (10:3 meter)

mito-

thread

mitochondrion (small, rod-shaped or granular organelle)

mono-

single

monotrichous (having a single flagellum)

multi-

many

multinuclear (having many nuclei)

myc-

fungus

mycotic (caused by fungus)

myx-

mucus

myxomycete (slime mold)

-oid

resembling

lymphoid (resembling lymphocytes)

-ose

a sugar

lactose (milk sugar)

-osis

disease of

coccidioidomycosis (disease caused by Coccidioides)

pan-

all

pandemic (widespread epidemic)

para-

beside

parasite (an organism that feeds in and at expense of the host)

patho-

disease

pathogenic (producing disease)

peri-

around

peritrichous (having flagella on all sides)

-phag-

eat

phagocyte (a cell that ingests other cell substances)

-phil

like, having affinity for

eosinophilic (staining with the dye eosin)

-phot-

light

photosynthesis

-phyll

leaf

chlorophyll (green leaf pigment)

pleo-

more

pleomorphic (occurring in more than one form)

poly-

many

polymorphonuclear (having a many-shaped nucleus)

post

after

postnatal (after birth)

pyo-

pus

pyogenic (producing pus)

-sta-

stop

bacteriostatic (inhibiting bacterial multiplication)

sym-, syn-

together

symbiosis (life together)

thermo-

heat

thermophilic (liking heat)

trans-

through, across

transfusion

-trich-

hair

monotrichous (having a single flagellum)

-troph

nourishment

autotroph (organism that obtains carbon from CO2)

tox-

poison

toxin

zym-

ferment

enzyme

Nester-Anderson-Roberts: I Back Matter I Appendix III: Pronunciation I I © The McGraw-Hill

Microbiology, A Human Key: Bacterial, Fungal, Companies, 2003 Perspective, Fourth Edition Protozoan, and Viral

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