-pr Granules containing mediators

cell _Mast cell surface

18.2 Type II Hypersensitivities: Cytotoxic

Figure 18.3 Immunotherapy for IgE Allergies

(a) Repeated injections of very small amounts of antigen are given over several months. (b) This regimen leads to the formation of specific IgG antibodies.The IgG reacts with antigen before it can bind to IgE, and therefore it blocks the IgE reaction.

inducing IgG rather than IgE. Engineered anti-IgE (omalizumab) is a promising new immunotherapy under evaluation.

■ How do localized and generalized anaphylactic reactions differ?

■ Define allergen and give five common examples of substances that act as allergens.

■ Why would leaking of plasma from blood vessels during an allergic reaction cause a wheal? _••••_

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