How to stop cats peeing outside the litter box

Cat Spray Stop

Susan Westinghouse is the creator of the cat spray stop program. She is an avid veterinarian and cat expert with lots of years of experience. She claims that the guide offers a broad outline and precise approaches targeted at preventing your cat from spraying, despite your cat's stubborn or persistent personality. According to her, it contains the exclusive TTS Taste, Touch, Smell method for pinning the issue, therefore the guide works to stop the cat from spraying and discourages him to ever repeat the bad behavior in the future. It is an e-book that comes with two bonuses attached to it. The first bonus is a nutritional program that will help your cat lose unnecessary weight, while the second bonus is an essential oil recipe for cats that will help to reduce their stress level. This program is suitable for any owner who lives with a cat that has bad litter box habits and often sprays. Susane Westinghouse's guide is characterized by ease of use and it contains a ton of helpful tips that make the process a lot easier both for you and your furry companion. The program is spread across six chapters that take you through a comprehensive tour in how you can solve this annoying problem now, while also learning how to keep it from coming back to haunt you later on in the future. Read more...

Cat Spray Stop Summary


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Author: Susan Westinghouse
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Cat Spray Stop Review

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Comparison of Molecular Topology CATS

The CATS descriptor belongs to the class of topological atom-pair descriptors. The CATS descriptor does not characterize the atoms of each atom-pair by their chemical element type. Instead, atoms are assigned to PPP types. The employment of the 2D molecular structure as the basis for the calculation is a crude simplification of reality. However, even though the interaction between a ligand and its binding partner is clearly a 3D event, the two-dimensional structure captures much about the physical properties and reactivity of a molecule 19 . A clear advantage with topological descriptors is that they circumvent the problem of conformational flexibility inherent to all 3D descriptor methods. Fig. 3.1 The CATS family of descriptors CATS, CATS3D and SURFCATS. The degree of abstraction from the atomic molecular structure is assumed to be SURFCATS > CATS3D > CATS. All descriptors are based on a PPP-type description of the underlying molecule. For each descriptor, pairs of PPPs are...

Comparison of Molecular Conformation CATS3D

Like many 2D descriptors, CATS has a counterpart in 3D space the CATS3D descriptor. While the topological pharmacophore approach has the advantage that the time-consuming calculation of conformations can be avoided, the binding event is nevertheless a three-dimensional interaction between a ligand and its receptor. Accordingly, it should be advantageous to exploit such information if available. distance bins. Several such binning schemes have been proposed 9, 16, 17 . For CATS3D we generally employ 20 distance bins that cover distances from 0 to 20 A in steps of 1 A. For CATS3D we used the modified PATTY atom types 23 available with the pH4_aType function in MOE 24 . Other PPP assignment schemes could also be employed. PATTY provides six PPP types cation, anion, hydrogen-bond acceptor, hydrogen-bond donor, polar (hydrogen-bond acceptor and hydrogen-bond donor) and hydrophobic. Whereas the topological CATS descriptor allows assignments of more than a single PPP type to one atom, the...

CATS Unknown

Cats 89 Felid taxonomy remains somewhat controversial. Some authorities put modern cats into three groups the Subfamily Pantherinae, incorporating leopards, jaguars, lions, tigers, lynxes, and bobcats the Subfamily Felinae, which includes everything in the genus Felis and an undetermined category for the cheetah. Others place all living cats into the Subfamily Felinae. Genetic variations in coat coloration have been one reason why cat classification has been problematic. The general purpose for spots, stripes, and splotches on the coat is to provide camouflage and make it more difficult for the animal to be identified when it is stalking its prey. Each species has a basic set of markings, and individual cats often sport a unique pattern. Significant variations in coat pigmentation (albino, melanistic, chinchilla, agouti, and so on) are produced by the mutant alleles of six major genes. If enough variants occur in an isolated population to allow it to interbreed successfully and...

Herding Cats

Managing the huge Human Genome Project required a special kind of leadership skill, and when Francis Collins took over the project's directorship in 1993, he showed that he possessed it. Collins became known for his ability to persuade the many, often contentious groups of scientists involved in the HGP to cooperate, a process that Craig Venter, later to be Collins's rival, described to Tim Stevens of Industry Week as herding cats. Quoted in the same article, Aristides (Ari) Patrinos, associate director of the Department of Energy's Office of Science, said that Collins . . . has an incredible ability to lead large groups of people. Collins used a bottom-up management style, seeking opinions and building consensus

Eula Bingham PhD John Zapp PhD deceased

Early organic chemists were not deliberately looking for poisons, but for dyes, solvents, or pharmaceuticals. For example, toxicity was an unwanted side effect, but if it was there, it had to be recognized. The sheer number of new organic compounds synthesized in the laboratory, along with a growing public disapproval of the practice of letting toxicity be discovered by its effects on people, led to a more extensive use of convenient and available animals such as dogs, cats, or rabbits as surrogates for human beings, much as some of the ancient kings used dogs instead of slaves to test their food before they dined.

Classification According to Essentiality

Nutritional essentiality is characteristic of the species, not the nutrient. Arginine is required by cats and birds but not by humans. Also, it is not synthesized by the young of most species in amounts sufficient for rapid growth. It may, therefore, be either dispensable or indispensable depending on the species and stage of growth. Ascorbic acid (vitamin C), which is required by humans and guinea pigs, is not required by most species.

Origin of human parasites in Iceland

Iceland is an isolated island situated in the North Atlantic Ocean, south of the polar circle, between Norway and Greenland. In 1997, Iceland had approximately 275 000 inhabitants. First to live in Iceland were Irish hermits. It is generally believed that they were living on the island during the eighth and ninth centuries but disappeared when Norse people started to arrive in Iceland in 874. In 930 Iceland is believed to have been fully settled with a rural population of at least 20 000 inhabitants. The majority of the settlers came from Norway but some came from Sweden, Ireland, and Scotland. Already, during the settlement period livestock (sheep, horses, cattle, pigs, and poultry), pets (dogs and cats), and accidentally probably also house mouse Mus musculus and field mouse Apodemus sylvaticus were imported from one or more of these countries. Certainly, both the settlers and the animals carried their parasites to Iceland.

Ehrlichiosis and related diseases

Other ehrlichial agents causing human and veterinary diseases include Neorickettsia sennetsu, causing senetsu fever in Asia, Neorickettsia risticii, which causes equine monocytic ehrlichiosis (Potomac horse fever) in the USA, and Neorickettsia helminth-oeca, which causes salmon poisoning in dogs and may also infect cats, found on the West coast of the USA. These agents are all associated with flukes of fish and snails (Dasch & Weiss, 1998 Cohn, 2003) and may have a worldwide distribution, as described in a recent report from China (Wen et al., 2003).

Introduction of Research on Learning of Animal Subjects

Research on learning and memory was extended to animal subjects independently by the psychologist Edward L. Thorndike and the physiologist Ivan P. Pavlov. Thorndike demonstrated in his doctoral thesis (1898), conducted under William James, how learning and memory can be measured in animal subjects, using cats, dogs, and chicks. This research led to the concept of trial-and-error learning and, later, to the law of effect (Thorndike, 1911). The field Thorndike opened with this research was quickly entered by others (Hilgard & Marquis, 1940, p. 6).

Neurosurgical Intensive Care

Rosner and Becker showed that plateau waves in cats with mild brain trauma are preceded by a decrease in systemic blood pressure to approximately 70-80 mmHg and that CBV increases exponentially with this decrease. In association with poor intracranial compliance, this increase in CBV is accompanied by an exponential rise in ICP, seen as the plateau wave. Plateau waves may be abolished with an increase in CPP or with maneuvers to improve intracranial compliance.

Nondualist Explanations of Consciousness

In practice people adopt what Dennett (1978a) calls the intentional stance toward creatures that seem to think and feel. That is, they simply assume that cats, dogs, and babies have beliefs, desires, and feelings roughly similar to theirs as long as the assumption accounts for their behavior better than any other hypothesis can. If there ever are intelligent robots, people will no doubt adopt the intentional stance toward them, too, regardless of what philosophers or computer scientists say about the robots' true mental states. Unlike Dennett, I don't think the success of the intentional stance settles the matter. If a system seems to act intentionally, we have to explain why it seems that way using evidence besides the fact that a majority of people agree that it does. People are right when they suppose babies have mental states and are wrong when they suppose the stars do.

Zoonotic endoparasites

Several zoonotic protozoans and helminths, which have not (yet) been reported from humans (except probably for Ascaris suum, see subsequently), are known to be endemic in Iceland. Recently Entamoebapolecki, Iodamoeba buetschlii, and Balantidium coli were reported in domestic pigs (Eydal and Konradsson 1997). However, indigenous human infections have never been reported. The fourth protozoan, Encephalitozoon cuniculi, occasionally reported from humans abroad, has been confirmed in some wild mammals and in farmed foxes (Hersteinsson et al. 1993). Already in the nineteenth century Toxocara cati and Toxocara canis were reported from cats and dogs (Krabbe 1865). Recent surveys on endoparasites of cats (Agustsson and Richter 1993) and dogs (Richter and Elmarsdottir 1997) showed that both species are still common. Also, T. canis has been reported from the native arctic fox (Skirnisson et al. 1993a). However, human toxocariosis has not been reported in Iceland and none of 307 healthy blood...

The Limited Independence Of Finger Movements

Modern amphibians and reptiles have forelimbs with distinct digits, but do not use these digits to grasp objects. Further along the phylogenetic scale, mammals such as rats and cats can be observed to mold the digits of the forepaw to grasp objects.1-3 Although nonhuman primates, and especially humans, are clearly capable of more sophisticated finger movements, the vast majority of what nonhuman primates and humans do with their fingers consists simply of grasping objects. In grasping, all the digits are in motion simultaneously. Independently controlling the 15 different joints of the 5 digits presents a formidable problem for the nervous system, but analysis suggests that most control of the fingers in grasping could be simplified. Only 2 principle components mathematical functions describing simultaneous motion of the 15 joints in fixed proportion to one another account for most of the motion of the 15 joints.4,5 The first principle component corresponds roughly to the simultaneous...

A phenomenon process or mechanism that does not exist in nature but is believed to exist due to erroneous

Probably hundreds of Ph.D. theses interpreted the pecking of pigeons in a Skinner box as an instrumen-tally conditioned response however, pecking is an innate response, the pigeons emit it anyway, and the situation might not have been instrumental but rather classical conditioning (Jenkins and Moore 1973). Similarly, over the years, cats were reported to be meticulously conditioned to emit stereotypic behaviours in order to escape from puzzle boxes but some of the typical behaviours, such as rubbing the flank or head against a pole, were later pointed out as species-specific feline greeting reactions, emitted in response to the observer rather than conditioned by the escape (Moore and Stuttard 1979). Note that here the artefact is both technical (due to the improper design of the experiment, allowing the observer to affect the behavioural response of the subject), and interpretational. The role of the observer is probably continued to be ignored to this day in many labs it would be of...

VIP and Sleep Regulation

Several experimental studies have suggested a role for VIP as a sleep-inducing factor. During the 80s Riou, Cespuglio, and Jouvet (1981) demonstrated that i.c.v. administration of 100 ng of VIP promotes rapid eye movements sleep (REMS) in normal rats and in rats pretreated with para-chlorophenylalanine (PCPA). This study was the first evidence that demonstrate that VIP is capable of enhancing sleep and specifically REMS. Subsequent studies showed that i.c.v. injection of VIP also promotes REMS in other species, for example, cats (Drucker-Col n, Bernal-Pedraza, Fernandez-Cancino, and Oksenberg 1984 Drucker-Col n, Aguilar-Roblero, and Arankowsky-Sandoval 1986) and rabbits (Ob l 1986 Ob l, Opp, Cady, Johannsen, and Krueger 1989). The REMS enhancement observed after VIP administration is independent of brain temperature increases (Ob l, Sary, Alfoldi, Rubicsek, and Obal 1986). In 1986, Prospero-Garc a, Morales, Arankowsky-Sandoval, and Drucker-Col n (1986) reported that both the cerebral...

How VIP Induces Rems A Hypothesis

On the other hand, there are other studies that suggest that the effect of VIP on REMS is independent of cholinergic mechanisms. For instance, VIP administered in combination with atropine in PCPA-treated cats insomnia induced an increase in total time REMS (Prospero-Garc a, Jimenez-Anguiano, and Drucker-Col n 1993). Additionally, it has been observed that the administration of PRL-antiserum blocked the increase in circulating levels of PRL and prevented VIP-enhanced REMS (Ob l, Payne, Kacsoh, Opp, Kapas, Grosvenor, and Krueger 1994). VIP injections stimulate PRL secretion in plasma and i.c.v. injection of VIP also increase mRNA PRL levels in the hypothalamus of the rat (Bredow et al. 1994 Abe, Engler, Molitch, Bollinguer-Gruber, and Reinchlin 1985). According to these results it is possible to suggest that the REMS-promoting activity of VIP may be mediated by endogenous PRL.

Data From Animal Studies

Information on the findings from animal studies with prenylamine is now difficult to obtain but the requirements for preclinical investigations at the time of developing prenylamine were rudimentary. Terodiline had no effect on the QT interval in conscious dog or rat. However, ECG effects (including prolongation of the QT interval) were reported in studies on anaesthetised cats. Arising from this observation, subsequent electrophysio-logical studies and more rigorous ECG monitoring in clinical trials could have been undertaken to evaluate its potential for proarrhythmias.

Assessment of Transvascular Water Movement in Vivo

Experimental evidence of fluid filtration consistent with Starling's hypothesis was described in whole organ preparations in the mid-20th century 6 when hind limbs from cats and dogs were isolated, perfused, and the weight of the hind limb recorded continuously. Using this technique, fluid filtration was determined from the rate of gain of limb weight, and fluid reabsorption from the rate of loss of limb weight. The arterial and venous hydrostatic pressures were adjusted experimentally, and values that resulted in neither filtration

Classifying Organisms

For example, consider the pangolin, a species that is covered with scales and catches ants on its sticky tongue. Should pangolins be grouped in a category with other scaly animals, such as lizards and crocodiles Biologists have decided against such a classification, because pangolins share many more similarities with mammals such as dogs and cats than with lizards or crocodiles. Should pangolins be grouped in a category with other mammals that use sticky tongues to eat ants Again, biologists have decided against this grouping, because pangolins share more similarities with dogs and cats than with the other ant-eating mammal species.

Respiratory rate may be respiratory compensation for metabolic

Trauma from childhood play can be noted on the extremities, and evidence of infecting cellulitis should be sought. The punctum of cat-scratch disease is most often seen on extremities (upper > lower) as this is the site of most human contact with cats. Extremity findings can be seen in Kawasaki disease, dermatomyositis, SLE, and vasculitic syndromes (eg, septic vasculitis).

Critical Thinking

Analyzing Concepts The offspring of two short-tailed cats have a 25 percent chance of having no tail, a 25 percent chance of having a long tail, and a 50 percent chance of having a short tail. Using this information, what can you hypothesize about the genotypes of the parents and the way in which tail length is inherited

General Dynamic Events Leading to Leukocyte Migration

Many indirect and endpoint experimental systems have been used to study inflammation and leukocyte infiltration, such as lavages and histology. However, these do not serve to determine the sequences and events leading to leukocyte extravasation. Consequently, a state-of-the-art in vivo technique, known as intravital microscopy, was established to this end, and provides direct visual observation of living circulation in vivo (e.g., in mice, rats, guinea pigs, hamsters, bats and cats). Here, all the events of leukocyte trafficking, that is, rolling, adhesion, and transmigration through the vascular endothelium, can be visualized in real time. Furthermore, the development of in vitro rolling assays, exerting physiologically relevant shear forces on leukocytes over a layer of ECs, allows intricate dissection of the molecules and mediators involved in endothelial activation and leukocyte recruitment. Further, the relative importance of all the AMs involved in leukocyte recruitment has been...

The enteroepithelial cycle in the definitive host the cat

The prepatent period (interval between ingestion and shedding of oocysts) after the ingestion of tissue cysts is 3-10 days, with the peak oocyst production between five and eight days after a patent period varying from 7 to 20 days (Dubey and Frenkel 1972, 1976). Cats not previously infected with T. gondii shed oocysts after ingesting each of the infective stage of the parasite the tachyzoite, the bradyzoite, and the sporozoite (Frenkel et al. 1970 Dubey and Frenkel 1976). The prepatent period varies according to which stage of T. gondii the cat is infected with, with a short (3-10 days) prepatent period when the oral inoculum contained bradyzoites and a long prepatent period (> 21 days) when the inoculum contained tachyzoites or sporozoites (Freyre et al. 1989). Cats previously infected with T. gondii, and which produced oocysts during the previous infection, are generally immune against renewed oocyst shedding, but immunity is not life long (Frenkel and Smith 1982 Dubey 1995).

Rapid Synchronization

Very rapid synchronization has been observed in the visual cortex of cats. When neurons were activated by the onset of an appropriately oriented grating, their initial responses were better synchronized than expected from mere stimulus locking (Fries et al. 1997b). Comparison of actual response latencies and immediately preceding fluctuations of the local field potential revealed that the response latency shifted as a function of

The bradyzoite and tissue cysts

Bradyzoites differ only slightly from the tachyzoites. They are more slender than tachyzoites and their nucleus is located more to the posterior end compared to that of the tachyzoites. The contents of the rhoptries of bradyzoites are electron dense in older cysts (Ferguson and Hutchison 1987). The prepatent period in cats following infection by bradyzoites is shorter (3-10 days) than following infection with tachyzoites (21 days or more) (Dubey and Frenkel 1976). The transition from tachyzoites to bradyzoites can be observed in vitro, and occur through an intermediate stage which expresses both usually exclusive tachyzoite and bradyzoite antigens (Tomavo et al. 1991 Bohne et al. 1992 Soete et al. 1993). The external mechanisms behind stage conversion from tachyzoites to bradyzoites are not known, but studies have shown that nitric oxide and IFNg may be among other factors involved (Bohne et al. 1994).

Stress Hormonal Change Cytokines and Sleep Behavior

Human literature on this subject is reviewed elsewhere (Vgontzas et al. 2002). Typical examples for a role for cytokine mediated effects on sleep behavior include the following intraventricular injection of TNF-a or IL-1 promotes sleep in sheep cats, respectively alterations in serum levels of IL-1 occur during REM and SWS in humans (Moldofsky, Lue, Eisen, Keystone, and Gorczynski 1986) and sleep deprivation itself has been reported to alter serum cytokine levels (Moldofsky et al. 1989).

Animal Models of Pancreatitis

Intravenously with DBTC were reported to show epithelial lesions in the extra-hepatic bile duct, leading to chronic inflammation and cystic dilation of the bile duct. Also, tri- and dibutyltin or diethyltin diiodide compounds, which are alkylstannane compounds like DBTC, induce similar lesions in rats or mice, but not in cats, guinea pigs or rabbits 83, 84 . These facts may suggest that the involved cause for the lesion may be partly due to the anatomical character of the pancreaticobiliary duct, since the pancreatic duct and bile duct normally become confluent in rats and mice 85 .

Response Synchronization and Behavioral States

Therefore, to investigate whether response synchronization also occurs during states where the EEG is actually desynchronized, as is characteristic of the awake, attentive brain. Evidence from cats and monkeys indicates that high-precision, internally generated synchrony is considerably more pronounced in the awake than in the anesthetized brain. Whenever tested data are available from the primary visual cortex of cats and monkeys, the motion-sensitive areas MT and MST in monkeys and infero-temporal cortex of monkeys the synchronization phenomena were readily demonstrable and showed a dependence on stimulus configuration similar to the synchronization measured under anesthesia (for review, see Singer et al. 1997). Direct evidence for an attention-related facilitation of synchronization has been obtained from cats trained to perform a visually triggered motor response (Roelfsema et al. 1997). Simultaneous recordings from visual, association, somatosensory, and motor areas revealed that...

Cordering Cougar Sighting In Wa In 2016

Large brown or black, pumalike cats have been responsible for livestock depredations in the Grampians Mountain Range, Victoria, since the 1940s. Reports increased dramatically around 1969 and remained steady though the 1970s and 1980s. Rob Wallis saw a black, muscular cat near Moyston in August 1989 as it crossed the road in front of his vehicle. He estimated it was 8 feet long including the tail and weighed 250 pounds. He located its tracks the next morning and made a plaster cast of one clear track that resembled the print of a smallish puma, although claw marks were visible. (2) Imported black Leopards (Panthera par-dus) that escaped from zoos or were brought as U.S. regimental mascots during World War II. Leopards are about 3 feet 6 inches-4 feet long, with a 2 feet 6 inch tail. They stand about 2 feet at the shoulder. Melanism in leopards is common in India and Southeast Asia. However, Australian big cat witnesses have never reported spots, which are visible in black specimens in...

Overview Of The Parasites

Cryptosporidium is a protozoan parasite that belongs to the subphylum Apicomplexa. Because of large and significant waterborne outbreaks associated with it, much has been learned about the epidemiology, immunology, and biology of this parasite. Cryptosporidium parvum was considered to be the only species of public health significance however, studies involving pediatric populations, the immunocompromised, travelers, and endemic populations have demonstrated that humans can also be infected with C. meleagridis (of turkeys), C. canis (of dogs), C. felis (of cats), and C. muris

General Characteristics

In contrast to saccades, SPEM are usually considered as 'slow' eye movements, although velocities above 1007s can be reached man 3 monkey 4 . Cats, with a coarse area centralis can track larger stimuli only up to 20 s 5 . In man, there is a clear age dependence of SPEM 6 . They are already present in 4-week-old infants and reach a gain close to 1 at 3 months 7 . As a rule, maximal velocity decreases every year by 1 s starting at the age of 20 3 . There seems to be no further decline above the age of 75 8 .

Variations in prevalence rates

Areas with warm, moist climate where chances of survival of the oocysts are good, and lower in cold regions and high altitude. In central and southern Europe, many countries in Africa, and in South America, more than half of the population is infected with T. gondii, while in some countries with tropical climates, such as Guatemala, Costa Rica, and Tahiti, between 85 and 95 of the adult population have antibodies (Asburn 1992). In contrast only 11 of adults living in Iceland and 6 living in north Norway are infected (Jennum et al. 1998a Jonsdottir 1989). Dry climate may also render the oocysts uninfective. Therefore, in environments with low rainfall or in which soil does not retain moisture, there is less risk of infection from oocysts. In Norway, the dry, cold inland has significantly fewer infections than the coastal areas (Stray-Pedersen et al. 1979). Altitude has also been shown to be inversely related to antibody prevalence. In Columbia, South America, 53 of the population...

Risk factors for infection

Actually, in Denmark, these workers were found to have remarkably high Toxoplasma antibody prevalence (Lings et al. 1994). In other studies veterinarians and other humans with intimate contact with animals have high antibody prevalence (Asburn 1992). Daily contact with cats or living in a neighbourhood with cats does not represent a risk factor according to a Norwegian study however, daily contact with kittens less than 1 year of age or living in a household with a cat that uses a cat litter box

Roles Of Representation And Processing Of Reinforcement And Motivation By Dopamine Neurons And Striatal Neurons

Recordings of activity of dopamine neurons have provided information of how the dopamine system participates in reward, motivation, and learning mechanisms. Dopamine neurons in alert rats, cats, and monkeys tonically discharge at about 4 to 5 spikes second. They increase their discharges when food or liquid rewards are delivered. Although the presentation of nonreward objects does not usually influence dopamine neuron activity, they become effective to activate phasically when they appear as novel, high-intensity stimuli, and when they were associated with rewards. Dopamine neurons do not seem to be sensitive to stimuli of an aversive nature, such as air puff to the animal's face (Mirenowicz and Schultz 1996). On the other hand, tonic discharge rate of lightly anesthetized rat decreased by aversive tail pinch (Ungless et al. 2004).

Cerebral Localization Of Learning And Memory Processes Using Dissociation Designs

Findings of cerebral localization of motor and sensory processes developed extensively in the second half of the nineteenth century, based on both ablation and electrical stimulation techniques see the review by Finger (1994c). Perhaps the first investigator to combine the animal learning methods of Thorndike with cortical ablations to try to localize the processes of learning and memory was American psychologist Shepard I. Franz. He found that in cats (1902) and in monkeys (1906, 1907) lesions of the prefrontal cortex impaired memory for recently formed puzzlebox habits while not affecting memory for older habits. Cortical lesions that left the prefrontal areas intact did not affect the habit. However, the tasks could be relearned following prefrontal lesions, so Franz concluded whereas the prefrontal region might normally contribute to memory, it was not essential for learning or memory. Karl S. Lashley joined Franz in extensions of these studies to rats (Franz & Lashley,

Xlinked clonality assays

A number of mechanisms, not necessarily mutually exclusive, could account for this age-related skewed X inactivation. Firstly, an acquired mutation could lead to a proliferative advantage. Secondly, stem cell depletion could result in stochastic predominance of one cell type. However, several lines of evidence suggest that the predominant mechanism contributing to this phenomenon is selection for polymorphic X-linked differences. Twin studies in humans have suggested the presence of X-linked genes which regulate stem cell kinetics elderly cats develop skewing towards one parental G6PD allele and strain-dependent differences in the response of mouse stem cells to cytokines have been linked to a number of genetic loci, including some on the X chromosome.

Ethological parallels

Abnormal grooming behaviours in other species include canine acral lick in dogs, feline psychogenic alopecia in cats, and feather picking in birds. Grooming in animals is often considered to be a fixed-action pattern, a complex innate behavioural sequence mediated by deep brain structures such as the basal ganglia. Inappropriate fixed-action patterns, referred to as displacement behaviours, are observed in situations characterized by heightened physiological stress or arousal. The conceptualization of trichotillomania as a displacement behaviour is supported by phenomenological similarities to animal displacement behaviours as well as similar treatment responses of both trichotillomania and animal grooming disorders to serotonin-reuptake inhibitors and opiate antagonists. (19

In the theory of mind an intelligent supervisor in the brain that reads information and commands action

Rephrasing Eliot on cats (Eliot 1939), the naming of homunculi is a difficult matter. In psychology they become variants of 'central executives' (see working memory). In physiology they resurface disguised as 'grandmother cells', 'command neurons', and more (see below). In philosophy, homunculi have been discussed many years before they were so named. Descartes' proposal that the pineal gland is the site of the soul (Descartes 1649) is a version of the homunculus with

Parasomnia overlap disorder sleepwalkingsleep terrorsREM sleep behaviour disorder

An experimental animal model is applicable to combined sleepwalking sleep terrors REM sleep behaviour disorder (as cited (36)) cats who receive kainic acid injections into the midbrain display 'hallucinatory-type' behaviours in wakefulness, with complete unresponsiveness to environmental stimuli, which are identical to the oneiric behaviours displayed in the cat model of REM sleep behaviour disorder.

Echinococcus multilocularis

The most common life cycle of E. multilocularis involves transmission between foxes (host to adult worm) and rodents as intermediate hosts (larval worm). Domestic dogs and cats can also become infected when eating infected rodents. Human infection occurs as a result of ingestion of tapeworm eggs by contamination of fox, dog, or cat faeces. The natural hosts are generally separated ecologically from humans. Infection of humans by E. multilocularis is less common than infections by E. granulosus. The primary localization of E. multilocularis larvae in humans, as well as in the natural intermediate hosts (rodents) is the liver. Local expansion of the lesion and metastases to the lungs and brain may follow. The typical lesion is a dispersed mass of fibrous tissue with a lot of scattered cavities ranging from a few millimetres to centimetres in size. In chronic cases, a central necrotic cavity can be formed, containing a viscous, yellowish to brown fluid, which may be superinfected....

Mechanical Stresses in the Walls of Pulmonary Capillaries

Exercise Pulmonary arterial wedge pressures (a measure of pulmonary venous pressure) as high as 21mmHg have been recorded. Consistent with this, mean pulmonary artery pressures have been shown to be as high as 37.2 mmHg during exercise. Micropuncture studies of the pressures in small pulmonary blood vessels in anesthetized cats have shown that mean capillary pressure is about halfway between arterial and venous pressures, but that much of the fall in pressure occurs in the capillary bed. Therefore a conservative estimate for capillary pressure at midlung during maximal exercise is about 29 mmHg, although the pressures seen by capillary segments in the upstream regions of the bed will be higher. If we add the hydrostatic gradient for capillaries at the bottom of the upright human lung, this gives a capillary pressure there of about 36mmHg 5 .

And a few more visitors

Whilst the children pester me for a pet and I dogmatically say no, I cannot escape the fact that our colourful household seems to attract far more than other children We did at one point have seven birds, one for each ofthe children, but as these died they were never replaced and I have to say that as much as they were part of the family and I was sorry to see them go, I was not sorry that I didn't need to clean up feathers and bird poo along with the mess and chaos created by the children. My sister has violent allergies to most animals, Sarah is violently allergic to cats and rabbits, and those are the allergies that we know about .and I am allergic to cleaning up after anything other than my hyper, destructive little two and my lazy, hormonal five teenagers For these reasons we have no pets at the moment.

Neurobiological Correlates Of Memory Development

Early visual development appears to be a case of experience-expectant neural processes that are normally guided by visual stimulation. Behavioral and structural effects of early light and pattern deprivation have been reported in most mammalian species tested. The effects are most pronounced with monocular deprivation in species with binocularly overlapping visual systems where large parts of both eyes see the same visual field, such as cats or other predators, but significant effects also occur in largely nonoverlapping species such as rats. In fact, the studies of monocular deprivation in animals with binocularly overlapping visual systems constitute a special case and will be discussed separately. where animals can unwisely choose to step off a small platform. Cats reared in darkness or unpatterned illumination are slower to learn complex discriminations, such as an X versus an N (Riesen, 1965). Tees (1968a) found that dark-reared rats learned simple pattern discriminations as well...

Arthropodrelated problems in poor urban and rural settings

Restriction of food sources for rodents, birds, bats, and arthropods is important since these animals can serve as reservoirs and or vectors for infections. Protection of the food may be achieved by using screened food stores. Restriction of other food sources for rats, flies, cockroaches, ants, etc. include the provision of closed refuse containers and well-maintained toilets. Domestic populations of bloodsucking bugs, fleas, and mites can be controlled or eradicated by the removal of domestic animals (dogs, cats, pigs, goats, sheep, cattle, etc.) to suitable outhouses or enclosures. In Sweden and other parts of northern and western Europe, improved housing and the construction of animal shelters separate from the domestic habitations was probably the single most important factor in diverting the malaria mosquitoes (Anopheles spp.) from feeding on humans to feeding on animals. In this way, a gradual decline and eventual disappearance of malaria took place ( Jaenson 1983). The use of...

Dennett development and design

Where post-natal neuronal development is more limited, indicates that neuronal connections are influenced by experience. Hubel and Wiesel (1962) showed that cats or monkeys that have been reared with one eye sutured closed have no vision in that eye and there is shrinkage of the area of the lateral geniculate body devoted to that eye, with a corresponding diminution in the number of branches sent by the deprived cells to the cortex. At the cortex there is a shift in the number of connections from the deprived to the non-deprived eye. This effect is seen only following monocular deprivation in the first three months of life, and after that age, even extended periods of deprivation seem to have little effect. Furthermore the effect of environment on neurodevelopment can be quite specific. Blakemore and Cooper (1970) showed that kittens raised in environments in which there were only horizontal stripes are blind to other orientations, and this is reflected in the preferential responses...

Comparative Structure of the Placenta

The mammalian placenta, as well as being a complex organ, is the most structurally diverse among the different species. Mammalian placentas have been classified on the basis of macroscopic appearance and shape (16) and also the extent and type of maternal-fetal contact (17,19,24). Grosser suggested a classification based on the number of layers seen to separate the circulations under light microscopy. In the sheep, for example, which is one of the most commonly used species in placental transfer studies, all three maternal layers (uterine endothelium, connective tissue, endometrial epithelium) are retained as well as the chorionic epithelium, fetal connective tissue and fetal endothelial cells (epitheliochorial placenta). Dogs and cats are examples of endothelio-chorial placentas where the maternal uterine endothelium is retained but the maternal connective tissue and endometrial epithelium disintegrate. In contrast, in human and rodents, all three maternal layers disintegrate, giving...

Controversy Concerning Pulleys

Dimitrova et al. 50 electrically stimulated eye movements from central to secondary gazes in anesthetized cats and monkeys before and after removal of the LR pulley. Although this surgery predictably increased the amplitude and velocity of horizontal eye movements, there was no significant effect on vertical eye movements 50 . Dimitrova et al. 50 interpreted the increase in eye movement size to transmission of OL force to the tendon, although they also noted that reduction in elastic load associated with pulley removal would also increase eye movement. Their experiment was not a test of the APH's implications for LL, which would have required investigation of tertiary gazes.

Use of ISMS for Inducing Functional Movements of the Limbs

Various forms of spinal cord stimulation have been used to investigate the organization and activate the locomotor networks within the spinal cord. These include the use of surface suction electrodes (Magnuson and Trinder, 1997 Vogelstein et al., 2006) in in vitro preparations and epidural electrodes in vivo in rats, cats, and humans (Dimitrijevic et al., 1998 Herman et al., 2002 Gerasimenko et al., 2003 Minassian et al., 2004). Intraspinal microstimulation has been used in frogs, rats, and cats to investigate the presence of movement primitives in the spinal cord (Bizzi et al., 1991 Giszter et al., 1993 Tresch and Bizzi, 1999 Saltiel et al., 2001 Lemay and Grill, 2004). The concept of movement primitives refers to the hypothesized existence of a limited number of immutable neuronal networks that generate distinct movements of the limbs. These networks comprise the building blocks for all movement generation. However, a comparison of ISMS and peripheral FES responses indicate that...

Evolving Sideways Horizontal Gene Transfer

The type-C virogene was present during evolution of old world monkeys from their common ancestor. Surprisingly, a version of this gene closely related to the one in baboons was identified in North African and European cats. Since baboons and cats are not closely related, the gene must have moved from one group to another via horizontal transfer. Further supporting the idea of horizontal transfer, the gene is not found in cats like the lion or cheetah, which developed before the North African and European cats branched off. One well-described example of horizontal transfer in animals concerns the type-C virogene shared by baboons and all other Old World monkeys. The type-C virogene was present in the common ancestor of these monkeys, about 30 million years ago, and since then has diverged in sequence just like any other normal monkey gene. Related sequences are also found in a few species of cats. Only the smaller cats of North Africa and Europe possess the baboon type-C virogene....

Activitydependent Regulation Of Naag Expression

I examined NAAG immunoreactivity in the retina and LGN of monocularly deprived (MD) cats and compared it with that in normal cats.51, 52 As noted above, in the LGN of the normal cat, both the neuropil and the somata of relay cells are heavily labeled. Long-term monocular deprivation decreases labeling of the somata, but not the neuropil, in the deprived layers of the LGN (Fig. 5). There is little or no loss of label in the retinal ganglion cells of the deprived eye, as might be expected, given that the labeling of their terminals in the LGN is also unchanged. There is also no change in immunoreactivity for GAD, which is found in the interneurons of the LGN. The changes in NAAG immunoreactivity of the LGN neurons in MD cats are much more striking than changes demonstrated with immunocytochemistry for glutamate, cytochrome oxidase histochemistry or uptake and incorporation into protein of 3H-leucine. Thus, the changes are unlikely to be due to an overall decrease in metabolism or...

Shapebased categories

To test for neural correlates of perceptual categories, we trained monkeys to categorize computer-generated stimuli into two categories, cats and dogs (Freedman et al. 2001 Fig. 1). A novel 3D morphing system was used to create a large set of parametric blends of six prototype images (three species of cats and three breeds of dogs Beymer and Poggio 1996 Shelton 2000). By blending different amounts of cat and dog, we could smoothly vary shape and precisely define the boundary between the categories (> 50 of a given type). As a result, stimuli that were close to but on opposite sides of the boundary were physically similar, whereas stimuli that belonged to the same category could be physically dissimilar (e.g. the cheetah and housecat). Nearly one third of responsive neurons were category-selective in that they exhibited an overall difference in activity to cats versus dogs. Similar numbers gave stronger activity to cats as dogs. Figure 2 shows a single neuron that exhibited the...

Avian influenza virus

It is also possible for avian influenza viruses to directly infect humans. Numerous outbreaks of such novel avian influenza viruses in humans have been reported in recent years. Almost all have been epidemiologically linked to close contact with poultry, chiefly chickens or ducks, and human-to-human transmission has rarely been documented. There have been over 200 cases of human disease due to H5N1 influenza to date, with an overall 57 mortality (Tab. 1). Most of the deaths have been in previously healthy young adults and children, suggesting that H5N1 possesses significantly greater virulence than usual seasonal influenza. Again, for H5N1, virtually all cases have occurred in those with close contacts to poultry, with only a few likely cases of person-to-person transmission 24-26 . Viral determinants of virulence of the H5N1 strain have been established in birds and mice, and include a polybasic HA cleavage site (containing multiple basic amino acids) and point mutations in HA and...

Long Term Passive Implantation

A particularly salient test of biological reactivity depends on replicating the conditions under which devices will perform over a longer term in an appropriate experimental animal model. Thus, in a series of nine cats, devices were implanted in paraspinal muscles around lumbar vertebrae and in tibialis anterior muscles of the hindlimb for survival periods of one, six, and thirteen months. Different sites in the paraspinal muscles of the same animals were also implanted with negative control articles, including USP-recommended polyethylene rods, silicone rods custom-fabricated to reproduce the form of the tested devices, and BIONs whose glass package was sheathed in thin-walled silicone tubing (0.1 mm wall thickness). Each test and control article was inserted into a small pocket made in the muscle with the tips of fine scissors. The insertion sites of the devices were closed and marked with 6-0 multistranded polybutylate-coated polyester nonresorbable suture (Ethicon Ethi-bond). This...

Design Specifications for a Clinical ISMS System

The use of cats as the animal model for the development of ISMS provides some additional challenges that may not be encountered in humans. For one, the human spinal cord is larger and is surrounded by a significantly stronger dura mater. This means that additional stability could be provided to the implant if modular sections of it are secured to the dura mater instead of relying solely on the attachment to the spinal process. A loop of wire near the implant would provide the required strain relief before being secured to the bone and traveling to the implanted stimulator.

Conformation Dependency

Finally, we examined the impact of molecular flexibility on virtual screening with CATS3D 43 . Using a descriptor based on the 3D conformation of a molecule (e.g., CATS3D), one might assume that it is essential for new molecules to be presented in a conformation near to the conformation of the reference to be considered as similar. Consequently, it is often the strategy to calculate a set of multiple conformations per molecule of a database. This is based on the observation that for most molecules multiple conformations exist with comparable energies. One of these usually binds to the receptor, but not necessarily the one with the lowest energy 44 . However, calculating multiple conformations can be rather time consuming. On the other hand, CATS3D has been shown to perform better than CATS for some classes of molecules, using only a single conformation 33 . To test the impact of multiple conformations, co-crystal structures of 11 target classes served as queries for virtual screening...

Pathogenesis Of Voiding Dysfunction In Pd

Lewin et al. performed pivotal experimental studies in cats that are still being cited as backbone for current theory on pathophysiology.1819 Lewin et al. stimulated the thalamus and different sites of the basal ganglia and found that the stimulation was inhibitory of detrusor contractions. The inhibition ranged from prolongation of intercontraction interval of the detrusor to occasional complete suppression of detrusor contractions with the activity only resuming after stimulation was stopped.

Synchronization of oscillatory activity as a signature of solutions

As mentioned above, interocular rivalry is one of the phenomena where perceptual processes have two equally likely solutions and where the respective neuronal networks settle in alternation in one of two stable states. Psychophysical evidence suggests that the activation patterns arriving from the two eyes compete for the first time within primary visual cortex (Lee and Blake 2004), and that it is the outcome of this competition that determines which activation pattern is propagated further and eventually gives rise to conscious experience. Multielectrode recordings performed in cats exposed to binocular rivalry have revealed that the activation patterns that have access to consciousness are those that succeed in engaging in precisely synchronized oscillations in the gamma frequency range (Fries et al. 1997, 2002). By analyzing the temporal coherence among the spiking patterns of distributed neurons, it was possible to predict which signals have access to consciousness and the control...

Scaffoldhopping Potential

The ultimate goal in virtual screening is to find the maximum number of maximally diverse active compounds from a given chemical subspace. There are several reasons for seeking a set of diverse structures. Diverse structures offer the medicinal chemist a choice in terms of chemical accessibility and prospects for lead optimization. Multiple leads (backup compounds) lower the chance of drug development attrition in case of undesirable ADMET (absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion and toxicity) properties. One criterion for a diverse set of molecules is the presence of different scaffolds. This concept is based on the idea that drug-like molecules are built up from a scaffold (framework) and side-chains 46 . A recently published method for scaffold classification inspired us to tackle the question of the scaffold-hopping capability of different virtual screening methods 8 . The program Meqi (molecular equivalence indices), devised by Xu and Johnson 47 , was used to classify the...

Chronic Active Testing

The aforementioned study was carried out using passive devices. However, when BIONs are used for their intended therapeutic purpose, they emit electrical pulses to stimulate motor axons and produce muscle contraction. To test whether the active devices would have greater foreign-body responses than passive implants, an additional series of four cats was implanted with active BIONs in four muscles of one hindlimb and passive BIONs in the other.12 The active devices were used to stimulate muscles for two hours each day, five days per week for three months. The biological reactions to the implanted devices were similar for active and passive implants, according to the quantitative outcome measures used in the passive trials described above. Stimulation was carried out in fully alert, behaving cats so that their reactions to the stimulation could be observed. Typically, the cats tolerated the stimulation well. They generally ignored evoked movements of their limb and slept through much of...

Prospective Virtual Screening

An overview of successful prospective virtual screening campaigns using CV methods is given in Fig. 3.8. The first prospective application of the CATS descriptor was a virtual screening study aiming at finding novel cardiac T-type Ca2+ channel-blocking agents 6 . Using mibefradil (1, IC50 1.7 M) as a reference structure, the 12 highest ranking molecules were tested experimentally. Nine of these compounds showed an IC50 below 10 M. The best hit was clopi-mozid (2) with an IC50 below 1 M. Clopimozid had a significantly different scaffold than the reference structure. Naerum et al. used a very similar descriptor termed CATS2, composed of a slightly different PPP type definition, for the identification of novel glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3) inhibitors 49 . Using the high-throughput screening hit 3 as reference structure, a new inhibitor 4 with an IC50 of 1.2 M was found. Further experimental lead optimization led to molecule 5 with an IC50 of 0.39 M. This result demonstrates that...

The detectability of solutions with noninvasive techniques

Quite unexpectedly, recent investigations into the correlation between neuronal activity and hemodynamic responses suggest that the BOLD signal that serves as the basis of fMRI investigations does not only depend on the discharge rate of neurons but, to a crucial extent, also on the coherence of neuronal firing (Logo-thetis et al. 2001). A recent experiment in which optical recording of the hemodynamic response was combined with direct recordings of neuronal activity in the visual cortex of cats revealed that the amplitudes of the hemodynamic responses

Experimental Toxicology

As the brain is the recognized target for Al(III) toxicity, a number of studies have been carried out to establish a correlation between the internal Al load and the functions of the central nervous system (CNS). The neurotoxicity of Al has been known for more than a century, on the basis of observations following the subcutaneous administration of Al salts (e.g., Al(III)-tartrate or -lactate) to rabbits, cats, and dogs. The resulting neurodegeneration was particularly severe in the lower cranial nerves 4 . Brain autoptic examination revealed nerve cell degeneration with inflammatory reactions. Numerous experiments have revealed that Al(III) induces NFD in aluminum-sensitive animals, e.g., cats, ferrets, rabbits, and dogs. However, rodents such as hamster, guinea pig, rat, and mouse, similarly to monkeys and man, appear to be remarkably resistant 2 .

Mptpinduced Parkinsonism In Animals

Shortly after MPTP was found to provoke a parkinsonian syndrome in humans, researchers were prompted to test MPTP toxicity in a variety of animal species including monkeys, dogs, cats, and rodents (21,22). These investigations showed that most of the vertebrates and invertebrates tested were sensitive to the neurotoxic effects of MPTP (21,22), but with marked differences among species. Among mammals, monkeys, for example, were by far the most sensitive to MPTP whereas rats and guinea pigs were resistant and mice were of intermediate susceptibility.

Genetic Models of Absence Epilepsy in the

Because typical absence epilepsies mainly affect children and teenagers and have moderate consequences, studies of their pathophysiological mechanisms cannot be conducted in humans for ethical reasons. Therefore, animal models are mandatory to understand this form of epilepsy and the mechanisms underlying the generation and control of SWD. Models displaying electrical, behavioral and pharmacologic characteristics of absence seizures have been used in rodents, cats or primates by injection of pentylenetetrazol, penicillin, gamma-hydroxybutyrate or GABA agonists (see Chapter 10). However, although these models have contributed to our understanding of SWD generation, the lack of recurrence of the seizures does not allow us to study the development of the disease.

The Neural Velocityto Position Integrator

Together with the ocular motor nuclei in the brainstem, the neural velocity-to-position integrator for review, see 18 forms the final neural structure common to all types of eye movements. The neural commands for eye movements, which are also sent to the ocular motor nuclei, consist of phasic signals coding eye velocity (e.g. the saccadic burst command). However, if this were the only signal sent to the muscles, the eye would not remain in an eccentric position, but drift back to the equilibrium position determined by the eye plant. Therefore, an additional signal is necessary to generate the tonic muscle force to hold the eye. This signal comes from the neural velocity-to-position integrators located in the brainstem (nucleus prepositus hypoglossi and medial vestibular nucleus) for horizontal eye movements and the midbrain (interstitial nucleus of Cajal) for vertical eye movements. Additionally, the cerebellar flocculus plays an important role in neural integration in mammals, as...

Agent and Epidemiology

Gondii is an obligate intracellular parasite, which probably evolved from a unicellular alga since it has an organelle similar to a chloroplast. It has a life cycle that has three forms, an oocyst (found in the gut of cats), a tissue cyst, and an active, or proliferative form. The source to humans includes cat feces, in which the oocyst may be infective for up to 1 year in warm, moist soil, and raw meat, in which the tissue cysts are viable. The prevalence in humans varies with age, under 5 years, the antibodies are found in less than 5 of the population, while over 80 years, they are present in 60 .

Insights Into Human Disorders

Neurophysiologic experiments in either the GAERS or the WAG Rij animal models have clearly implicated the coupling of thalamic oscillations and cortical rhythms as the cause of SWDs. This is partly in agreement with the previous hypothesis proposed from data collected from cats, in which SWDs were elicited by injection of penicillin (see Gloor, 1968). Early accumulated data suggest a predominant role of the thalamic neurons in the generation of SWD (Danober et al., 1998). In addition, multisite recordings have provided evidence for a critical role of the sensorimotor cortex (Meeren et al., 2002).

Excessive daytime sleepiness

As many as one third of PD patients may be inappropriately sleepy during daytime (for a review, see Arnulf et al., 2005). Excessive daytime sleepiness could be caused by non restorative nocturnal sleep (with significant sleep apnea in 20 of the patients and severe periodic leg movement syndrome in 15 of them, although the impact of periodic leg movements during the night on subsequent daytime alertness is still a matter of debate), lesions in sleep-wakefulness systems and side-effects of drugs. A narcolepsy-like pattern without cataplexy, characterized by inappropriate sleep onsets in REM sleep during the daytime has been evidenced in up to 40 of sleepy PD patients (Arnulf et al., 2002). It has occasionally been reported in untreated, young patients, in patients with multisystem atrophy, in Lewy body dementia and in Parkin gene mutation. This narcolepsy-like pattern (but not RBD) can be reproduced in animal (non-human primates and cats) models of PD, suggesting that the dopamine...

Neurotoxic Effects in Experimental Animals

Degenerative changes in cerebellar granule cells, dorsal root ganglia 240 , and peripheral nerves 205,244,245 . Degenerative changes in the cerebellum and the cerebral cortex have been seen in cats administered chronic, low-dose dietary MeHg. Whereas cats fed doses of MeHg for 2 years exhibited delayed impairment of motor activity, diminished sensitivity to pain at low doses, and ataxia, alterations in gait, motor incoordination, muscle weakness, changes in temperament, and convulsions, as well as neuronal degeneration in the motor, sensory, auditory, and occipital cortices, and cerebellar granule cell degeneration at higher doses 246-248 . In rabbits, MeHg caused widespread neuronal degenerative changes in cervical ganglion cells, cerebellum, and cerebral cortex, without accompanying behavioral changes, and in rodents, degenerative changes in dorsal root fibers and cerebellum 249-254 .

Administering Different Types and Dosages of Cytokines and Their Effects on Sleep

IL-1 and TNF-a have been shown to be somnogenic in every species thus far tested (e.g., mice, rats, cats, monkeys, and rabbits) and are effective whether given directly into the brain or after intraperitoneal or intravenous injections. On the other hand, the effect of cytokine administration is dependent not only on the mood and time of administration but also on the dosage. For instance, IL-1 and TNF-a appear to induce physiological sleep, however, high doses of IL-1 rather inhibit than promote sleep. Rabbits given IL-1 at dark onset sleep about 3 extra hours during the first 12 h after the injection but normal sleep patterns are maintained. Administration of TNF-a or IL-1P also increases the amplitude of slow wave EEG, while that of IL-10 and IL-4, inhibits NREM (Krueger et al. 2001).

Across Columns Horizontal

Several arguments can be listed to support the fit between the function and the anatomy of the horizontal network. During development in strabismic cats, anomalous horizontal connectivity links are formed between distant cortical territories corresponding to the same eye-dominance (Schmidt et al. 1997 Trachtenberg and Stryker 2001). Another example can be observed with a sensory substitution protocol imposing a rewiring of the input to the auditory thalamus at an early stage of development. If visual input is provided to auditory thalamus at that time, the auditory cortex develops a visual competence and an orientation preference map. The horizontal connectivity anatomy in the rewired A1 cortex resembles that of a control area V1, in terms of anteroposterior mediolateral biases, and not to that of a normal auditory cortex (Sharma et al. 2000). To progress in this direction, work must be undertaken to characterize the factors, linked with activity and the sensory code, that determine...

Hindlimb Motor Responses Evoked By intraspinal microstimulation In The anaesthetized and acutely prepared cat

Experiments were conducted to map the hindlimb motor responses evoked by intraspinal microstimulation of the lumbar segments (L5-L7) in neurologically intact, chloralose-anaesthetized adult cats. The isometric torque generated about the knee joint and intramuscular EMGs from knee flexors and extensors were recorded in response to intraspinal stimuli (1s, 20Hz, 5-100 pA, 100 ps) applied with metal microelectrodes. Stimuli were applied in ipsilateral and contralateral segments with a 250 pm mediolateral resolution and a 200 pm dorsoventral resolution to create fine grained maps at half-segment intervals (i.e., L6, L6 L7 boundary, L7, etc.). The end-point forces elicited by intraspinal microstimulation (0.5-s train of 40-Hz 100-pA 100-ps biphasic current pulses) of the L5-L7 spinal cord were measured in adult cats either anaesthetized with chloralose or decerebrated. End-point force vectors in the sagittal plane were measured at 9-12 positions of the hindlimb that spanned the range of...

Endpoint Force Field Types

4.4 HINDLIMB MOTOR RESPONSES INDUCED IN AWAKE BEHAVING CATS* To determine whether selective activation of muscles can be obtained using SCpStim, the lumbosacral portion of the spinal cord was mapped in pentobarbital-anaesthetized adult cats, and locations generating activation within the main knee and ankle flexor and extensor muscles (i.e., hamstrings, quadriceps, tibialis anterior, triceps surae plantaris) were noted. The maps demonstrated that there were regions within the spinal cord from which single muscles (i.e., tibialis anterior) or synergistic muscle groups (i.e., quadriceps) can be activated in isolation.60-63 We referred to these regions as activation pools. Within these pools, muscles are selectively activated with low stimulus strengths (< 40 pA) and the selectivity is maintained with further increases in stimulus amplitude (> 2x threshold). The results therefore affirmed that the overlap between various motoneuronal pools within the lumbar cord is minimal and...

Big Cat Sightings In Ayrshire

Up to 5 inches long, which is larger than a German shepherd's. Some of the tracks show claws, which rules out an arboreal habitat and most often indicates a dog however, many cats keep their claws extruded to facilitate movement and balance when sprinting, leaping, or walking on certain types of terrain. Significant sightings Sheep kills in May 1810 at Ennerdale Water, Cumbria, England in 1905 at Great Badminton, South Gloucestershire, England and in January 1927 in Inverness, Highland, Scotland, might have been depredations by big cats. See Alien Big Dog. Possible explanations Although classed as a big cat (with pumas, leopards, and lions), the British big cat might be explained in some instances by small cats (wildcats, lynxes, or feral domestics). When seen at a distance, sizes are difficult to estimate. Because descriptions vary so widely, a multicausal explanation seems likely. 11 pounds. Primarily nocturnal, the wildcat feeds mostly on rodents, as well as...

Sarcomeric Myosin Isoforms Determine The Functional Properties Of Atrial And Ventricular Myocardium

In mammalian cardiac muscle only two MyHC isoforms are expressed, alpha-MyHC and beta-MyHC, the former being preferentially expressed in atrial myocardium and the second in ventricular myocardium. The relative proportion of alpha-MyHC and beta-MyHC changes across species and also during development within the same species (Hoh et al., 1978 Schwartz et al., 1981 Mercadier et al., 1983). In ventricular myocardium of small mammals (mouse and rat) alpha-MyHC is the predominant isoform, whereas in large mammals (pigs, cats, dogs, humans, cattle) beta-MyHC content is higher. The species-related differences in MyHC isoform proportion are generally attributed to heart-rate differences that exist between small and large mammals. High levels of alpha-MyHC are required in small mammals because faster ATP hydrolysis rate and faster cross bridge kinetics (see below) are instrumental to the extremely rapid rates of cardiac contraction and relaxation present in these animals (Hasenfuss et al.,...

Types of training protocols in which reinforcement is made contingent upon performance of the proper behaviour

The cat, restlessly exploring the box, would operate the mechanism by chance. As the door fell open immediately, the cat would apparently learn to associate its deeds with the outcome, resulting in a striking improvement in performance over time. The behaviour was not necessarily related to the mechanism of door opening in some experiments Thorndike manipulated his cats to lick themselves in order to get out. Note, however, that, whereas in classical conditioning the experimenter controls (ideally) all the experimental parameters, in instrumental conditioning there is a more democratic division of labour the subject decides which response to emit, and the experimenter decides how and when to reinforce it.

Multicellular Parasites Arthropods and Helminths

Most multicellular parasites have been well controlled in the industrialized nations, but they still cause death and misery to many millions in the economically underdeveloped areas of the world. Our need to know about these problems has come about because more people are traveling farther, more people are moving from one place to another, and more goods are being exchanged worldwide. A clear example of this occurred in New York City in the summer of 1999 when West Nile fever was contracted by a number of people. At least 61 persons suffered serious disease and seven people died. A significant number of crows died at the same time and were found to be carrying the disease. In addition to birds and people, horses, cats, and dogs were also found to carry the virus. It is not clear how the virus arrived in New York City, but it perhaps could have been carried by a traveler from Africa, West Asia, or the Middle East, where it is commonly found. It could possibly have been brought by an...

Hoofed Mammals Unknown

Simply put, hoofed mammals have toes covered with a horny structure composed of keratin that helps them to run away from predators efficiently. Hooves, like the nails of primates, evolved from the keratinous claws of other mammals, such as cats and rodents. Like ballet dancers standing on point, these animals have their entire weight concentrated on their toes.

Giant Pennsylvania Snake

Behavior Sometimes blocks rural roads. Coils its tail around a tree branch and swings its head to and fro. Said to be able to move with its head and neck erect. Hisses or groans. Eats roosters and cats. A black snake 25-35 feet long was seen in the vicinity of Allentown, Pennsylvania, in 1870 and 1871, catching and eating roosters and cats.

Chronic Window Preparations

Laboratory Imaging Chamber Rodent

Rabbits, rats, hamsters, mice Pigs, cats, rats, mice The closed transparent cranial window model has been extensively used for cerebral microcirculation studies. After the recovery of central nervous system fluid and intra-cephalous pressure to normal levels, this model provides direct optical access to cerebral blood vessels under physiological condition. The cranial window is the most stable window model to date, allowing observation for as long as the entire natural life span of the animal it is therefore very useful for studies requiring relatively long duration. Cranial windows are used for angiogenesis, vessel remodeling, and maturation studies. Furthermore, this model provides a natural microenvironment for primary and metastatic brain tumors. Various species, including mice, rats, cats, and pigs, are used for the cranial window model. We will describe the preparation of the mouse cranial window (Figure 2), but similar procedures are used for other species.

Observational learning

Our knowledge of IOL draws from research in multiple disciplines behavioural psychology and ethology education, developmental and social psychology and cognitive psychology and the philosophy of mind. The systematic discussion of IOL in behavioural psychology and ethology was initiated already in the nineteenth century examples from this period are provided in Darwin (1871, 1872), Romanes (1882), and Morgan (1896). Most contemporary reports on species other than humans were mostly anecdotal (anthropomorphism). The interpretation of the factual or the alleged data was at first rather shaky. In this context, even Darwin erred he suggested that in evolution, the dog has started to bark in an attempt to imitate its talkative human master (Darwin 1872). Since then, IOL has been documented in a great variety of species, ranging from guppies and octopi, via birds and cats, to monkeys and apes (John et al. 1968 Griffin 1984 Anderson 1990 Cheney and Seyfarth 1990 Fiorito and Scotto 1992...

Intraocular Pharmacokinetics Using Microdialysis

Breaching Endothelial Cells

Ben-Nun et al. (10) evaluated the intraocular pharmacokinetics of gentamicin after intravitreal administration. The experiments were carried out for a short duration in domestic cats weighing 2.5-5 kg. The animals were anesthetized and the pupils were dilated with tropicamide 0.5 and phenylephrine 10 . Lateral canthotomy was performed in both eyes and the area of the upper part of the sclera was exposed. The superior rectus muscle was divided and cotton wool was inserted into the gap between the posterior sclera and the superior margin of the orbit to stop bleeding. The cotton wool was fixed with a drop of cyanoacrylate glue. A rubber disk (5 mm in diameter and 1 mm thick) was glued to the sclera over the pars plana region in the superotemporal quadrant of each eye. A 1 mm diameter hole was made through the rubber disks and a 20 gauge needle was then passed through each hole into the eye. A sampling catheter for ocular dialysis was passed into the sclerotomy site in each eye and glued...

The Natural Course of Human Diabetic Retinopathy

The time course of the initial hyperglycemic capillary damage has been most carefully studied in diabetic animal models. Here, the first appreciable sign of structural vascular damage is the loss of pericytes. Pericyte loss has been demonstrated in a variety species (mice, hamsters, rats, dogs, cats, monkeys), and with various modes of diabetes (chemical, genetic). In streptozotocin-diabetic rats, pericyte loss starts between 4 and 8 weeks of diabetes. Subsequently, there is a steady increase in the number of endothelial cells per capillary area unit, indicating random distribution of endothelial cell proliferation. This change becomes significant after 4 to 5 months of hyperglycemia. In parallel with the increase of endothelial cell numbers, acellular occluded capillaries occur, starting with a unilateral focal obstruction in the vicinity of capillaries that still contain cells. This phenotype favors the idea that capillary occlusion in the diabetic retina is the result of both...

Pasteurella multocida Bite Wound Infections

Infections caused by bacteria that live in the mouth of the biting animal are much more common and less frightening than rabies. Surprisingly, a single species, Pasteurella multocida, is responsible for bite infections from a number of kinds of animals, including dogs, cats, monkeys, and humans, among others. Many healthy animals, however, carry the bacterium among their normal oral and upper respiratory flora. Both diseased animals and healthy carriers constitute a reservoir for human infections. Cats are more likely to carry P. multocida than dogs, and so cat bites are more likely than dog bites to cause the infection.

Integration of the Vascular Response Ascending Dilatation

The resistance network that controls blood flow to skeletal muscle comprises terminal arterioles, as well as larger arterioles and the small (feeder) arteries from which they derive. In small (terminal) arterioles the products of energy metabolism are effective dilators, but the accumulation of metabolites alone has relatively little effect on vascular resistance. The reason for this is that in order to achieve optimal vascular conductance, both small arterioles and the larger arterioles feeding them must dilate in concert. More than 70 years ago the German physician A. Schretzenmayer provided the first experimental evidence for flow-induced dilation. In the hind legs of anesthetized cats he showed that whenever blood flow to the leg was increased, there was a

Parasitic Retinal Disorders Definition


Inflammation of the retina caused by infection with parasites such as Onchocerca volvulus (the pathogen that causes onchocerciasis), Toxocara canis or Toxocara cati (nematode larvae that are normally intestinal parasites of dogs and cats), Taenia solium, (pork tapeworm), and other parasites. Toxocara canis or Toxocara cati (eggs of nematodes infesting dogs and cats) are transmitted to humans by ingestion of substances contaminated with the feces of these animals. The eggs hatch in the gastrointestinal tract, where they gain access to the circulatory system and may be spread throughout the entire body. The choroid can become infested in this manner.

The World of the Microorganism

Microbiology is the study of microorganisms, which are tiny organisms that live around us and inside our body. An organism is a living thing that ingests and breaks down food for energy and nutrients, excretes undigested food as waste, and is capable of reproduction. You are an organism and so are dogs, cats, insects, and other creatures that you see daily.

Mechanisms Determining Blood Flow Distribution

Adenosine is a known vasodilator that directly causes smooth muscle relaxation and also acts indirectly via its action on the endothelium 1, 3, 7 . It is an attractive candidate for metabolic vasodilation because its production should be directly related to the rate of muscle metabolism as adenine nucleotides are broken down for their energy-bearing phosphate bonds. Indeed, adenosine appears to play a major role in dilation of the coronary circulation. But studies examining the role of adenosine in skeletal muscle hyperemia have not been definitive, with the majority of studies showing no role for adenosine 1, 3, 8 . Studies measuring adenosine concentrations in contracting muscle have generally found levels lower than that which would cause vasodilation 8 , suggesting that adenosine plays at most a minor role in mediating increased blood flow, but adenosine is rapidly degraded and accurate sampling of adenosine at the smooth muscle cell is difficult 7, 8 . It appears that the...

Sensory Receptors in Extraocular Muscles

All skeletal muscles possess muscle spindles, so it is curious that in extraocular muscles some animals have them, and others lack them no muscle spindles have been found in the eye muscles of submammalian species 14 . Many mammalian species do not have muscle spindles in their eye muscles most monkey species including Macacca fascicularis, dogs, cats, rats, guinea pigs and rabbits do not have muscle spindles, whereas they have been found in humans, some types of monkey, mice and all ungulates (artiodactyls) 15-18 . The later studies show that the spindles are associated with the orbital layer, or the transition zone of the orbital layer with the global layer but they are not associated with the global layer (fig. 1a). Furthermore, the density of muscle The global layer possesses an unusual feature unique to eye muscles it has palisade endings at the myotendinous junctions, both proximally and distally (figs. 1b and 2) 3, 15, 28, 29 . Palisade endings, or palisade-like endings, have...

PRL and Sleep Regulation

In 1986 Michel Jouvet showed that the systemic administration of PRL enhances the total time of REMS in cats (Jouvet et al. 1986). Studies in hypoprolactinemic rats showed that REMS duration was decreased, also circadian rhythm of REMS disappeared, while that of nonrapid eye movements sleep (NREMS) remains unchanged (Valatx and Jouvet 1988).

All The Following Symptoms Are Characteristic Of The Aids Related Complex

A newly emerging virus lethal for all felines is rapidly killing off household cats and related zoo animals. The CDC urgently appeals for funds to develop a vaccine against the virus, but a scientific adviser to Congress states that it would be very expensive and may not be possible. Moreover, she states that getting rid of cats would have the side benefit of ridding the world of toxoplasmosis. Is she correct If so, how long would it take

Epithelial And Other Animal Allergens

Cats seemingly produce the most dramatic symptoms in sensitive individuals, particularly in those who are exposed intermittently. Whether this is caused by the concentration of cat allergens in the environs or by the potency of the allergens is unknown. Studies with cat pelts have disclosed a substance called Fel d 1 that appears to be the major allergen, recognized by over 80 of cat-sensitive individuals (195). Fel d 1 is produced mainly in cat saliva, but is also in the sebaceous glands of the skin, the sublingual glands, and even in the brain ( 196,197). The Fel d 1 molecule has been cloned. There is still controversy over the biologic activity of Fel d 1. Fel d 1 may be detected in the urine of male cats but not of female cats. Allergens other than Fel d 1 in some sensitive individuals also have been detected in cat serum and urine, but these are minor allergens (198). Studies with individual cats show that some cats are high producers of allergen and others are not. Moreover, the...

Historical Summary of the Use of ISMS

In the late 1960s, ISMS was explored in animal experiments as a means of restoring micturition after spinal cord injury (Nashold et al., 1971). A pair of 0.4-mm diameter platinum-iridium wires with deinsulated conical tips was implanted into the spinal cord of cats and dogs, with and without spinal transections. The electrode tips were placed in the intermedio-lateral column to target the micturition center in the sacral (S1-S3) spinal cord. Starting in the early 1970s, twenty-seven patients in various centers (United States, France, and Sweden) were implanted with this spinal stimulation system. The system achieved a 60 success rate for effective bladder voiding but the stimulation was often associated with additional autonomic and motor responses (Nashold et al., 1981). In addition, a sphincterectomy was commonly needed in male patients to allow bladder voiding due to an inability to relax the external urethral sphincter using ISMS. Similar results have been more recently obtained...

Cousetive Agent Of Cilia

Organisms in the phylum Apicomplexa, also referred to as sporozoa, cause some of the most serious protozoan diseases of humans. Malaria is caused by any of four Plasmodium species. It is transmitted by the female Anopheles mosquito. Cats are the primary host for Toxoplasma gondii, with humans serving as secondary hosts. Another Apicomplexa is Cryptosporidium parvum, which causes the diarrheal disease cryptosporidiosis. malaria, p. 731 toxoplasmosis, p. 755 cryptosporidiosis, p. 626

Causative Agent In Morbid Pregnancy-related Outcomes

Is recognized by receptors in the placenta, permitting transport across to the fetus. Since IgG production is not optimal until the secondary response, women who have not been exposed to certain disease-causing agents that can infect and damage the fetus are warned to take extra precautions during pregnancy. For example, pregnant women are advised not to eat raw meat or become first-time cat owners this is to avoid a primary infection by Toxoplasma gondii, a parasite that can be transmitted in raw meat and the feces of infected cats.

The Allergic Reaction

An allergic reaction is simply the overresponse of the immune system to a specific stimulus, usually environmental. This stimulus is called an antigen. There are 4 basic types of allergic reactions. We are all very familiar with the type 1 response. This reaction is seen as a result of hay fever, bee stings, cats, dogs, or even medications. It is the cause of the itchy, watery eyes, and runny nose many of us experience each spring when we cut the grass or stroll through the park. A brief look at the cause of this response will help us better understand the treatment of these conditions.

Abrupt improvement in the performance on a task

The subjects were asked to tie together the two hanging strings. However, the distance between the strings was too large. After a while, the subjects suddenly realized that they can tie the pliers to one of the strings, swing it like a pendulum, and catch it in its up-swing while holding the other string. Reports of 'insight' are not confined to anthropoids. Over the years, cases of apparent 'insight' were described, although some also disputed, in cats in problem boxes and rodents in mazes (e.g. Walker 1983). An interesting example of 'insight' in lower vertebrates involves pigeons who pushed a box in order to be able to climb and peck a hanging banana (Epstein et al. 1984). In all these experiments, it is important to discern between chance successes occurring via repetitive attempts of instrumental learning, and a sudden solution to a problem after behavioural silence.

Interlaminar Connection In The Superior Colliculus

On the other hand, Maeda et al. (1979) showed that short latency excitatory postsynaptic potentials (EPSPs) can be induced in deeper-layer neurons following electrical stimulation of the optic nerve in anesthetized cats. In the late 1980s, the existence of an interlaminar connection was first demonstrated anatomically by Moschovakis and his colleagues in squirrel monkeys (Karabelas and Moschovakis 1985 Moschovakis et al. 1988) and by Rhoades and his colleagues in the hamster (Mooney et al. 1988a) it was later confirmed in additional species by Behan and Appell (1992), Lee and Hall (1995), and Hilbig and Schierwagen (1994). Further, in the late 1990s, the properties of the interlaminar connection was investigated in detail by using electrophysiological techniques in combination with intracellular staining techniques in slice preparations of the SC (Lee et al. 1997 Isaet al. 1998b). In this section, we summarize the observations obtained in slice studies and discuss the behavioral...

Causative Agent Of Cytomegalovirus


Toxoplasma gondii, a protozoan infectious for most warm-blooded animals. Sexual reproduction occurs in the intestinal epithelium of cats, the definitive hosts. Infected cats discharge oocysts with their feces. Ingested organisms are released from the oocysts, multiply rapidly, spread throughout the body. As immunity develops, infected cells become filled with the organisms, resulting in tissue cysts, which remain viable and infectious for the lifetime of the animal

Scope and limitations of neuroethology

For example, the large amount of neurophysiological work that has been done on hearing in cats has been of little interest to ethologists because it is so difficult to correlate particular properties of the auditory system with particular episodes in the animal's normal behaviour. It is almost impossible to know what a cat is listening to at any given moment, simply because its hearing is used for so many purposes. By contrast, in the study of hearing in bats, we know precisely what the animals are listening to they are listening to themselves. The auditory system of bats is largely dedicated to analysing the echoes of their own cries as part of the sonar system by which they find their way around (see Chapter 6). Knowing this central fact, the physiological properties of nerve cells in the auditory system are readily correlated with their behavioural function in the intact animal.

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