Vdd Co X MttD

CO or flow can be derived from the familiar Stewart-Hamilton equation utilizing the area under the thermal dilution curve:

where Tp is the patient's temperature, V is the volume of injectate, T is the temperature of the injectate, t is time, and k is a constant.

The mean transit time is actually the sum of the appearance time (At) and the mean time (t) of the indicator dilution curve ( Fig, 1(b)). The mean time is defined as follows:

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