Vascular and hypoxic effects

The initial phase of ischemic acute intrinsic renal failure is characterized by a reduction of more than 50 per cent in renal blood flow, a disproportionate lowering of glomerular filtration rate, and a loss of renal autoregulation. Despite receiving a greater blood flow per unit weight of tissue than most other vital organs, the kidney is highly vulnerable to oxygen deprivation owing to the countercurrent urinary concentrating system. The most vulnerable nephron segments are the straight portion of the proximal tubule (S3 segment) and the medullary thick ascending loop of Henle because of their hypoxic milieu and high rates of oxygen consumption (active solute transport and reabsorption), while the inner medulla exhibits less metabolic demands ( Brezisand Rosen 1995).

Sleep Apnea

Sleep Apnea

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