Transtracheal and transthoracic needle aspirations

Transtracheal aspiration through the cricothyroid membrane, like tracheal aspiration, is sensitive but not specific. Transthoracic needle aspirations performed under radiological guidance require near-normal clotting. A fine-needle aspirate is suitable for microbiology and cytology and has a lower complication rate, but even in non-ventilated patients this is still high; 5 to 15 per cent hemorrhage and 17 to 25 per cent have a pneumothorax. Neither procedure is appropriate in ventilated patients.

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Sleep Apnea

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