The use of transthoracic impedance is discussed in detail by Preiseretal, (1989).
In 1966, Kubicek described the thorax as a cylinder evenly perfused with blood of specific resistivity p, itself related to the hematocrit. Pulsatile thoracic aortic blood flow caused negative impedance changes (measured from a steady state mean base impedance Z, with a maximum rate of change (dZ/d/)max of Zm during systole between pairs of electrodes placed around the neck and upper abdomen). Thus
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