The respiratory system

2.1 Normal physiology

G. Hedenstierna, H. U. Rothen

2.2 Upper airway obstruction

2:2J..Airwaycontroland uRfier .airway ..obstruction

2.2.2...Tracheobronchial..obstruction

2.3 The breathless patient

2:3J..Contro!..of .breathing

H. Burchardi, D. W. Richter

2.3.l2..Controi..of .kreathingL exte.rnal..i.nflue.n.ces ..a.nd..ab.n.o1r.m.a!i.t.ies

2.3..l3...C.auses." breathlessness

S. Benito

2.3.l4...The.rap.eUtiCn approach to..breat.h!essness

S. Benito

2.4 Acute respiratory failure

Md^ipoventilation

J. Milic-Emili, T. Similowski

2...4..2...P.ath.op,hYsiolog.y., of..acute...respiratorYn d.ist^ess...sYn.drome., and ..acute..lu.n.g ..injury

2...4..3...P.u!m.o.n.arY, mec.h.a.ni.c.a!.n dysfunction

J. Milic-Emili, T. Similowski

2i4!4.Cardiovascular .interactions

2.4.l5...Th.e.rap.eutiCn strategy

2.5 Severe hypoxemia

2.5.1iiPathoBhysiolonqyii and, causes

2.5..2iiiTherapeutic approach

L. Gattinoni, D. Chiumello

2.6 Aspiration and inhalation

2,6,1Aspirationof q.as.t.r!CiC.on.tents

G. J. Bellingan

2...6..2iijnha!<atio.nii injury D. T. Harrington, B. A. Pruitt

2.7 Acute bronchospasm

2.MiiPathophys.io!oqyiiand causes

2-L2iiiTheraReutic approachintoiibronchospasmnand asthma

2.8 Acute on chronic airflow limitation

2-8.1iiiPathophysio!oqy

R. Fernandez, A. Artigas

2...8.,2iiXh.e.rafi.eutici strategy P. Jolliet, J.-C. Chevrolet

2.9 Respiratory acidosis

^..S.IiiiPathophysio.loqyii and. causes

L. Gattinoni, A. Lissoni

2.9.;2iiiXheraReutic strategy

L. Gattinoni, A. Lissoni

2.10 Respiratory alkalosis

2..10;.1iPathophysioloqy

J.-C. Chevrolet, R. Zürcher Zenklusen

^-lO-ZiiCausesiandii therapeutici strategy

J.-C. Chevrolet, R. Zürcher Zenklusen

2.11 Failure to wean from mechanical ventilation

2..1i.1iE.a.thoBh.ysiolo.qy.i iof.„respiratp.SY.i musclei dysfunction

M. Aubier

2í11,2llPathPphysip!pqica!lCardiprespi^ratoryl interactions

2,113jncre,as.e.dii workioi ibreathinq

2.11.4 Causes of failure to wean

2.11.5 Therapeutic approach

2.12 Acute pneumonia

2,1.2,2llCauseSllandll diagnosis „of severe lC.0.m.m.Uni.t.y.:a.C.q.Ui.re.d.l pneumonia

2,12,3.llCauseSllandll diagnosis of.n..0.S.0C.0.m!la! pneumonia J. Dorca, A. Torres

2.,12,4llXheraReutiMC approach

2.13 Viral pneumonitis and atypical pneumonia

2,13.1Iherapeutic approach

2.14 Pneumothorax

2,!4,!lEath0Rhysio!oqy iofiiBneumothoraX

M. Sydow

2.14.2 Assessment and management

2.,14,3lllMana.qem.entll of i b^o.nchla!. i lf[stM!.as—p!e.H.ra!í.l i esophagealjnandii aortic

2.15 Pleural effusion

2.15.1 Pathophysiology of pleural effusion

2,15:2i!ndic.atio.ns llfoL1d.rain,aq.ell ofpleuraiii effusion

^JJOrainMei techniques

R. Nirula, K. Waxman

2.15.4 Hemothorax

J. A. McGuigan

2.16 Atelectasis and sputum retention

2i..16..1.pa.tho.ph.vsioiogv.l .of.sputum.retention

2.1.6.:2...condiitionin.gl .of..i.n.haled...re.spira.torv.l .gases

L. Thomachot, C. Martin

2...1.6.;3..Ih.erapeutic approach R. Vialet, C. Martin

2.17 Hemoptvsis

R. Zürcher Zenklusen, P. Jolliet

2.1.7.;2..Therapeutic .approach

R. Zürcher Zenklusen, P. Jolliet

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