The mechanism of anaphylaxis mediator release

A detailed discussion of the mechanism of mediator release is given by .L.e.vy...,(.,1.?..92.).

The mast cells and circulating basophils are the key cells in the allergic response. Mast cells are tissue fixed, residing in the perivascular spaces of the lung, skin, and intestine, i.e. organ systems that function as part of the interaction with our internal and external environments. Basophils comprise approximately 1 per cent of the circulating leukocyte pool. Bridging of cell-bound IgE molecules, anaphylatoxins, and non-specific stimuli all precipitate the release of mediators from some populations of these cells. In the case of IgE bridging, phospholipase C and protein kinase mechanisms are activated in the cell membrane. Membrane phospholipids are further converted to arachidonic acid which is converted to prostaglandins by cyclo-oxygenases and leukotrienes. Mast cell granules which contain preformed histamine, eosinophilic chemotactic factors, neutrophil chemotactic factor, bradykinin, and other mediators move to the periphery of the cell, and the granule and cell membranes fuse causing a pore to form through which the granule contents are extruded. Because the mast cells reside in the perivascular spaces, the mediators rapidly gain access to the central circulation.

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