Source isolation

It is essential to ensure that air is removed from the patient's immediate environment directly to the outside. Therefore the net outflow from the patient's room must be maintained at negative pressure, with the air ducted away from any other patient care area including areas outside the ICU. Air flow should be unidirectional across door openings, and it is important to ensure that there is no flow reversal between the top and bottom of the door in the absence of an airlock vestibule. Ideally, air should be ducted high up out of the building, but in such a way that there is no possibility of discarded air being drawn into the hospital's air intakes which should also be situated high on the building. Obviously, expert input is required at the design stage, taking into account climatic factors and the geography of nearby buildings which may affect wind patterns. The principles of design are given in Health Technical Memorandum 2025 (NHS Es.t§t.§s,...1994).

Sleep Apnea

Sleep Apnea

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