Rvesv Rvedv Sv Sv X f x I

where sv is stroke volume, ef is ejection fraction, edv is end-diastolic volume, and edd is end-diastolic diameter. Echocardiography

On an end-diastolic four-chamber view, an axis from the center of the echocardiographic fan through the right ventricular apex to the junction of the tricuspid valve annulus and right ventricular free wall is defined. The systolic descent of the tricuspid valve ring along this axis (measured where the tricuspid valve plane intersects it at end-systole) is recorded as the tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion. Since both right ventricular walls (septum and free wall) contract longitudinally during right ventricular systole causing pronounced base-to-apex right ventricular shortening, the tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion correlates well with the right ventricular ejection fraction (r > 0.9). The systolic tricuspid descent is normally 2 ± 0.2 cm.

Changes in right ventricular longitudinal area are less accurate measures of right ventricular ejection fraction, and, since most right ventricular contraction is longitudinal, changes in cross-sectional dimension and area are poorer indices of right ventricular systolic volume change ( Kaul.et..a/ 1984).

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