Fig. 7 Transesophageal echocardiography in subcostal view, showing the main pulmonary artery (PA) dividing into right (r) and left (l) branches (left upper panel). This approach allows the pulmonary artery flow velocity to be recorded by pulsed Doppler (left-hand bottom corner) and pulmonary hypertension to be detected. The right upper panel shows the inferior vena cava (IVC) behind the liver, which receives the hepatic veins (hv) and anastomoses to the right atrium (RA). Use of M-mode recording allows accurate measurement of the IVC diameter above the level of hepatic veins (right lower panel). RV, right ventricle; Ao, aorta.

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