Postrenal ARF indicates obstruction of the urethra or bladder neck, bilateral ureteric obstruction, or unilateral ureteric obstruction in patients with one functioning kidney or chronic renal failure. Common etiologies are illustrated in Table 1... Early obstruction is characterized by increased intraluminal pressure prior to the area of obstruction followed by a reduction in glomerular filtration rate. Arteriolar vasoconstriction ensues, thus further diminishing glomerular filtration rate. This type of ARF is readily recognized by ultrasonography of the kidneys and the bladder.
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