Pharmacological agents

A number of pharmacological agents may interfere with the ability of the kidney to excrete free water. These include large numbers of sedatives, hypnotics, oral hypoglycemic agents, tranquilizers, narcotics, antidepressants, and diuretics. In most such instances, there is excessive net retention of ingested or infused free water. The diuretics most commonly asociated with hyponatremia are thiazides and loop diuretics. In patients with thiazide-associated hyponatremia, there is often an idiosyncratic reaction to the drug in addition to polydipsia and a substantial loss of sodium and potassium in the urine.

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