Patientcontrolled analgesia

Patient-controlled analgesia minimizes interpatient pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic variability to allow suitable patients to titrate a predetermined bolus of opioid against their pain (Baljantyne. etal 1993). The dose, lockout period, and bolus infusion period are set by the practitioner. Most patients experience an individually determined satisfactory level of analgesia. Usage is significantly influenced by factors such as mood, anxiety, and expectation of recovery. Patient-controlled analgesia should not be used if the negative feedback loop is not intact. A maximum limit of half the predicted hourly rate may be used if an infusion combined with patient-controlled analgesia is desired. Meperidine (pethidine) may be used for periods of 2 to 3 days, but prolonged use is associated with dysphoria and accumulation of normeperidine (norpethidine) with a risk of convulsions.

Emergency Panic Remedies

Emergency Panic Remedies

Eliminate Your Panic And Anxiety Attacks Instantly With These Proven Techniques! There’s
 very
 little
 in
 this 
world
 that 
is
 as 
frightening
 and
 uncomfortable
 as 
a panic
 attack. 

Once
 they
 start,
 panic
 attacks
 can
 send
 you
 spiraling
 out
 of control.

Get My Free Ebook


Post a comment