Parenteral nutrition

G. lapichino, D. Radrizzani introduction

Indications. .for..parenteral feeding lnergy.nee.ds Nitrogen..requi.rement Inergy-nitrogen. .relationship Timing

Energy..and ..nitrogen

Insulin. . administration . . and . adjuvant. therapies vitamins,,. .minerals,.. and. .water

Fuelsubstrates

Anabo.lic.action

Gas.. exchange.. .modifications. .an,d..diet:ind,Hced..the,rmogenes,is

Substrate...oxidation

Lipid.. versus. .lung. .function

Lipids. .and ..the.. inMmmaiojx.re.siponsp

Aminoacids

Special. .problems .a.nd..reguirem.en.ts

Ac,ute..respiratory. .,disea,se..s,yndrome AcMierenal ..failure Acute..liver..faiiure Ad,verse,..e,ffec,ts Toleranc,e...o,f..substrate ..load Toleranc,e...o,f..n,itrogen. load lntravenous.. feeding.. catheters Chapter. .References

Diabetes Sustenance

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