Pancreas

The pancreas is located retroperitoneally, and is protected by the vertebral column and muscles in the back and by the viscera in front. Therefore pancreatic injury is often associated with injury of other organs.

Blunt trauma can cause pancreatic injury to any extent; in severe cases, the pancreatic gland is fractured over the spinal column. This can be seen in children who have fallen against bicycle handlebars and in victims of motor vehicle accidents.

Penetrating trauma, particularly bullet wounds, can lead to extensive necrosis and ductal injury. While an intact duct may lead to few or no problems, unrecognized ductal injury is followed by early or late hemorrhage, fistulas, pancreatitis, intra-abdominal sepsis, and pseudocysts.

Late exocrine or endocrine dysfunction is rare and is related to extensive surgical resection.

Sleep Apnea

Sleep Apnea

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