Other solute and solvent interactions

Some colloidal molecules may interact with the salts in the solvent. In particular, albumin is known to bind chloride ions and the fraction of salt available to take part in the Gibbs-Donnan equilibrium is reduced. This leads to a further increase in COP at physiological pH.

Other forces altering the behavior of solutions of polymers include intermolecular attractive and repulsive forces between molecules. These effects are likely to be small, as far as COP is concerned, for solutions used at clinical concentrations.

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