Other risk factors

A number of preventable renal insults due to episodes of hemodynamic instability may be inadvertently repeated throughout a patient's stay in intensive care and result in renal impairment and oliguria. These insults may follow changes in patient position, interruption of inotrope infusions, chest physiotherapy, hypotension following an excessive dose of induction agent for emergency tracheal intubation, or episodes of atrial fibrillation precipitated by overlooked hypokalemia and hypomagnesemia.

It should be noted that positive pressure ventilation alone may result in activation of physiological mechanisms directed at sodium and water retention through reduced atrial natriuretic peptide release and stimulation of aldosterone and ADH. The reduction in urine output is frequently reversed by fluid loading.

Sleep Apnea

Sleep Apnea

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