Key messages

• Phonation, detection of breath sounds, particularly using a stethoscope applied over the upper trachea and both lung fields, and the feel of breath on the hand are readily observable clinical signs.

• Techniques of airway opening and maintenance include posture, chin lift, and jaw thrust.

• In patients with suspected or proven cervical spine injury it is recommended that the cervical spine be protected by manual in-line axial stabilization.

• Devices for airway maintenance during adult life support include the oropharyngeal airway, the nasopharyngeal airway, the laryngeal mask airway, the pharyngotracheal lumen airway, and the Combitube esophageal-tracheal airway.

Sleep Apnea

Sleep Apnea

Have You Been Told Over And Over Again That You Snore A Lot, But You Choose To Ignore It? Have you been experiencing lack of sleep at night and find yourself waking up in the wee hours of the morning to find yourself gasping for air?

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