Key messages

• Acid-base balance is maintained by buffers, the most important of which is the bicarbonate-carbon dioxide system.

• Metabolic acidosis is due to loss of bicarbonate or gain of hydrogen ions.

• Acid is secreted and bicarbonate is reclaimed and regenerated by the kidneys; ammoniagenesis and secretion by the kidneys is crucial.

• Acidemia (lowering of systemic pH) can produce intracellular acidosis which causes widespread organ dysfunction, particularly in the cardiovascular system.

• Metabolic acidosis is classified on the basis of the anion gap (the difference between measured cations and anions) as normal or increased anion gap acidosis.

Sleep Apnea

Sleep Apnea

Have You Been Told Over And Over Again That You Snore A Lot, But You Choose To Ignore It? Have you been experiencing lack of sleep at night and find yourself waking up in the wee hours of the morning to find yourself gasping for air?

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