Key messages

• The main function of the endocrine system and the stress response is to maintain cardiovascular and metabolic homeostasis in an integrated fashion.

• The best known neuroendocrine response to injury is the increase in ACTH secretion and the resultant increase in adrenocortical secretion of glucocorticoid hormones.

• Exercise, pyrogens, and some psychological conditions increase the secretion of growth hormone. Glucagon and growth hormone help maintain a nutrient supply to metabolizing tissues.

• The cytokines may attenuate the magnitude of the postinjury metabolic response by direct influences upon hypothalamic and pituitary hormone production.

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