Key messages

• Hypernatremia occurs primarily when water ingestion is inadequate to correct for fluid losses.

• Hypernatremia affects those at the extremes of age and is frequently iatrogenic.

• The mainstay of treatment is free-water administration, usually 77 mmol/l NaCl, with correction over 48 h, as overly rapid correction may be complicated by cerebral edema.

• The mortality from hypernatremia in adults exceeds 50 per cent, and it has not been demonstrated to be improved by therapy.

Sleep Apnea

Sleep Apnea

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