Key messages

• Oliguria is a state in which the urine volume is less than 500 ml/day or less than 20 ml/h. Anuria applies to urine volumes below 50 to 100 ml/day.

• Prerenal azotemia should be suspected in all conditions characterized by hypovolemia.

• In elderly patients, whose kidneys are already nephrosclerotic, hypotension and markedly reduced renal perfusion may cause anuria for many hours.

• The absence of cellular elements in the urinary sediment or protein is most compatible with prerenal and postrenal azotemia.

Sleep Apnea

Sleep Apnea

Have You Been Told Over And Over Again That You Snore A Lot, But You Choose To Ignore It? Have you been experiencing lack of sleep at night and find yourself waking up in the wee hours of the morning to find yourself gasping for air?

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