Key messages

• Ischemic heart disease and long-standing hypertension are the most common causes of heart failure, although numerous other causes (structural, electrical, pharmacological, metabolic, or inflammatory) should also be considered.

• Clinical manifestations do not necessarily correlate with the degree of ventricular dysfunction.

• Systolic and/or diastolic dysfunction may be present; systolic dysfunction usually predominates.

• Pulmonary edema is not the primary reason for dyspnea and is a poor guide to intravascular volume status.

• Compensatory mechanisms (within the heart and/or periphery) may prove paradoxically disadvantageous on ventricular stroke work and stroke volume. Pathophysiology

Heart failure can be defined as the inability of the heart to meet the body's oxygen requirements. This definition is pertinent when considering treatment, as reducing demand is an important concept in patient management. Increases in ventricular filling pressures and/or volumes are usual, although not consistent, accompaniments.

Healthy Fat Loss For A Longer Life

Healthy Fat Loss For A Longer Life

What will this book do for me? A growing number of books for laymen on the subject of health have appeared in the past decade. Never before has there been such widespread popular interest in medical science. Learn more within this guide today and download your copy now.

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