Key messages

• Ischemic heart disease and long-standing hypertension are the most common causes of heart failure, although numerous other causes (structural, electrical, pharmacological, metabolic, or inflammatory) should also be considered.

• Clinical manifestations do not necessarily correlate with the degree of ventricular dysfunction.

• Systolic and/or diastolic dysfunction may be present; systolic dysfunction usually predominates.

• Pulmonary edema is not the primary reason for dyspnea and is a poor guide to intravascular volume status.

• Compensatory mechanisms (within the heart and/or periphery) may prove paradoxically disadvantageous on ventricular stroke work and stroke volume. Pathophysiology

Heart failure can be defined as the inability of the heart to meet the body's oxygen requirements. This definition is pertinent when considering treatment, as reducing demand is an important concept in patient management. Increases in ventricular filling pressures and/or volumes are usual, although not consistent, accompaniments.

Sleep Apnea

Sleep Apnea

Have You Been Told Over And Over Again That You Snore A Lot, But You Choose To Ignore It? Have you been experiencing lack of sleep at night and find yourself waking up in the wee hours of the morning to find yourself gasping for air?

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