Key messages

• Heparin is known to increase clotting time by affecting several coagulation factors simultaneously via potentiation of antithrombin III.

• Low-molecular-weight heparin appears to influence factor Xa activity specifically via potentiation of antithrombin III.

• The effects of the prostanoids depend on the balance between thromboxane and prostacyclin.

• Sodium citrate chelates ionized calcium necessary for the coagulation cascade.

• Warfarin produces a controlled deficiency of vitamin-K-dependent coagulation factors.

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