Key messages

• Dynamic hyperinflation exists whenever the duration of expiration is insufficient to allow the lungs to deflate to the relaxation volume prior to the next inspiration.

• When intrinsic positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) is present, onset of inspiratory muscle activity and inspiratory flow are not synchronous; inspiratory flow starts only when the pressure developed by the inspiratory muscles exceeds intrinsic PEEP.

• The aim of treatment of patients with continuous obstructive pulmonary disease who have respiratory failure should be reduction of respiratory frequency.

• Application of external PEEP during patient-triggered mechanical ventilation can counterbalance and reduce the inspiratory load imposed by intrinsic PEEP.

Sleep Apnea

Sleep Apnea

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