Key messages

• During the perioperative period there are changes in organ metabolic demand and in nutrient and oxygen availability which can lead to an imbalance between supply and demand, and produce life-threatening organ failure.

• The aim of circulatory management during this perioperative period is to maintain the balance of nutrient and oxygen supply and demand.

• Assessment of each patient is based on history, examination, and investigations.

• Therapy should be directed primarily towards actual or impending cardiovascular and/or circulatory system impairment.

• Management is based on correction of deranged physiology, with particular reference to optimizing blood volume, oxygen-carrying capacity, cardiac output, and organ perfusion.

• Treatment is by continued monitoring of the cardiovascular system and organ function with the judicious use of fluids, blood products, and drugs to improve cardiac function and organ perfusion.

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Sleep Apnea

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