Key messages

• If evidence of acute organ impairment is confirmed, the patient is a true 'hypertensive emergency'; therapy should be initiated immediately without waiting for the results of further laboratory tests or other studies.

• Aggressive therapies should never be initiated based on a single blood pressure measurement.

• Hypertensive urgencies are much more common than emergencies. Therapy should be initiated within the initial few hours, at least within 24 h, and oral medications are usually adequate.

• Sodium nitroprusside is the gold-standard parenteral agent for hypertensive emergencies against which all others are compared. It is the most potent, consistently effective, and highly recommended agent for hypertensive emergencies.

Sleep Apnea

Sleep Apnea

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